Indicators for Monitoring National Drug Policies
(1999; 250 pages) [French] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER I: Introduction
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER II: Development of the manual
Close this folderCHAPTER III: Model lists of indicators
View the documentBackground information
View the documentStructural indicators
View the documentProcess indicators
View the documentOutcome indicators
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER IV: Methodology for indicator calculation
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER V: Detailed presentation of indicators
Open this folder and view contentsANNEX 1: Data collection forms
View the documentANNEX 2: Glossary
View the documentANNEX 3: Table of random numbers
View the documentBACK COVER

Outcome indicators

These 10 indicators provide quantitative information on the achievement of the four objectives of national drug policy: availability of essential drugs, affordability of essential drugs, quality of drugs and rational use of drugs. The indicators measure the degree to which these objectives are being attained. They do not provide information on why results are good and bad; this could partly be obtained through the analysis of the structural and process indicators. It is reasonable to assume that if good results are achieved on the process indicators, then the outcome indicators should also show positive results or improvement over time. If the outcome indicators provide evidence of significant problems, when the structural and process indicators show good results, then decision-makers should undertake a careful analysis of the problems, to identify causal factors and revise strategies accordingly.

These outcome indicators are measured by a percentage or a figure based on information available at the central level and/or obtained through surveys. Those indicators which may need surveys are marked with an asterisk(*). The indicators can be used for assisting national and international decision-makers in measuring the results of policies and in evaluating drug policies and implementation strategies. They can also be used in comparing the pharmaceutical policies of different countries.

Based on field experience, outcome indicators can be collected at the same time as process indicators. Model sampling procedures, data collection forms for field work, and a summary form are provided in Chapter IV and Annex 1 (Summary Form 4). A one-page description of each outcome indicator is provided in Chapter V.

Availability of essential drugs


Number of drugs from a basket of drugs available in a sample of remote health facilities, out of total number of drugs in the same basket(*).


Number of drugs at the lowest price from a basket of drugs, out of total number of drugs in the same basket(*).

Affordability of essential drugs


Average retail price of standard treatment of pneumonia, out of the average retail price of a basket of food(*).


Value of a basket of drugs, out of the value of the same basket with the cheapest drugs(*).

Quality of drugs


Number of drugs/batches that failed quality control testing, out of the total number of drugs/batches surveyed(*).


Number of drugs beyond the expiry date, out of the total number of drugs surveyed(*).

Rational use of drugs


Average number of drugs per prescription(*).


Number of prescriptions with at least one injection, out of the total number of prescriptions surveyed(*).


Number of children under five with diarrhoea receiving antidiarrhoeal drugs, out of the total number of children under five with diarrhoea surveyed(*).


Number of drugs from the national essential drugs list among the 50 best selling drugs (EDL), out of the 50 best selling drugs in the private sector.


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