Indicators for Monitoring National Drug Policies
(1999; 250 pages) [French] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER I: Introduction
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER II: Development of the manual
Close this folderCHAPTER III: Model lists of indicators
View the documentBackground information
View the documentStructural indicators
View the documentProcess indicators
View the documentOutcome indicators
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER IV: Methodology for indicator calculation
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER V: Detailed presentation of indicators
Open this folder and view contentsANNEX 1: Data collection forms
View the documentANNEX 2: Glossary
View the documentANNEX 3: Table of random numbers
View the documentBACK COVER
 

Process indicators

These 38 indicators provide quantitative information on the mechanisms and activities by which a national drug policy is implemented. The indicators assess the efficiency and effectiveness of these mechanisms and activities in the seven key components and the progress being achieved over time towards specific targets established at the national level. If all the mechanisms are performing well and the activities are carried out correctly, then it should be possible to make reasonable progress towards the objectives of national drug policy. The process indicators monitor the main aspects of the same seven key components of drug policy considered for the structural indicators:

• legislation and regulation;
• essential drug selection and drug registration;
• drug allocation in the health budget/public sector financing policy;
• public sector procurement procedures;
• public sector distribution and logistics;
• pricing policy;
• information and continuing education on drug use.

The process indicators are measured by a percentage (percentage of change over time, percentage of coverage, etc.), using information available at the central level and/or obtained through surveys. Percentages allow trends to be monitored over time and to be compared with an ideal value. However, in certain circumstances, the figures used for calculating the percentages can also provide useful information.

The process indicators may be analysed and interpreted one by one; however, process and structural indicators have been designed in such a way that it is more important to analyse all those related to a specific key component together as shown in the table on page 20. This means that process indicators are related to one another within each component and should be analysed together, e.g. the results of PR19 to PR26 should be reviewed as a whole for obtaining a full measure of how the drug procurement in the public sector is improving or not. In addition, the process indicators should be analysed with the structural indicators for each component.

The process indicators can be used for assisting senior management staff and national decision-makers in monitoring progress in the implementation of the national drug policy, by providing quantitative measures of achievement of targets set at the national level. Each year the percentage measured should come closer to the national standard.

Field experience shows that data which have to be collected at central level for calculating process indicators can be obtained within two weeks - if the data collection effort is well organized. However, for some indicators, special surveys may be necessary. These indicators are marked with an asterisk (*). Such surveys can be organized to collect data for several process and outcome indicators at the same time (see Chapter IV) and can take up to six weeks. Model sampling procedures, data collection forms for the field work and a summary form are provided in Chapter IV and Annex 1 (Summary Form 3). A one-page description of each process indicator is provided in Chapter V.

Legislation and regulation

PR1:

Number of drug outlets inspected, out of total number of drug outlets in the country.

PR2:

Number of drug outlets in violation, out of total number of drug outlets inspected.

PR3:

Number of sanctions and administrative measures implemented, out of total number of violations identified.

PR4:

Number of samples routinely collected, out of total number of planned collected samples.

PR5:

Number of samples tested, out of total number of samples collected.

PR6:

Number of advertisements in violation of regulations on the ethical promotion of drugs, out of total number of advertisements monitored.

PR7:

Number of sanctions implemented for advertisements in violation of regulations, out of total number of violations identified.

Essential drug selection and drug registration

PR8:

Value of drugs from the national essential drugs list (EDL) procured in the public sector, out of total value of drugs procured in the same sector.

PR9:

Number of drugs from the national essential drugs list (EDL) prescribed, out of total number of drugs prescribed(*).

PR10:

Number of drugs from the national essential drugs list (EDL) sold, out of total number of drugs sold(*).

PR11:

Number of locally manufactured drugs sold in the country from the national essential drugs list (EDL), out of total number of drugs from the national essential drugs list (EDL).

PR12:

Number of combination drugs newly registered, out of total number of newly registered drugs.

PR13:

Number of registered drugs which are banned in other countries, out of total number of registered drugs.

Drug allocation in the health budget/public sector financing policy

PR14:

Value of public drug budget spent per capita in the last year, out of average value of the same budget during the past three years.

PR15:

Value of public drug budget spent by major hospitals, out of value of public drug budget spent.

PR16:

Value of international aid received for drugs, out of value of public drug budget.

PR17:

Value of revenue generated for drugs through additional financing systems, out of value of public drug budget.

PR18:

Public drug budget spent, out of public drug budget allocated.

Public sector procurement procedures

PR19:

Value of drugs purchased through competitive tender, out of value of drugs purchased.

PR20:

Value of drugs purchased from local manufacturers through competitive tender, out of value of drugs purchased through competitive tender.

PR21:

CIF/ex-factory value of a basket of drugs, out of CIF/ex-factory value of the same basket in the year of reference.

PR22:

CIF/ex-factory value of a basket of drugs, out of "reference" value on the international market of the same basket.

PR23:

Average lead time for a sample of orders in the last year, out of average lead time during the past three years.

PR24:

Average time period of payment for a sample of orders, out of average time period of payment stated in contract.

PR25:

Number of drugs/batches tested, out of number of drugs/batches procured.

PR26:

Number of drugs/batches that failed quality control testing, out of number of drugs/batches tested.

Public sector distribution and logistics

PR27:

Average time between order and delivery from central store to remote facilities in the last year, out of average time between order and delivery in the past three years(*).

PR28:

Average stockout duration for a basket of drugs in the central and/or regional stores in the last year, out of average stockout duration for the same basket in the past three years.

PR29:

Average stockout duration for a basket of drugs in a sample of remote facilities in the last year, out of average stockout duration for the same basket in the past three years(*).

Pricing policy

PR30:

Value of a basket of drugs, out of CIF/ex-factory value of the same basket(*).

PR31:

Average expenditure per prescription, out of average expenditure per prescription in the past three years(*).

PR32:

Value of a basket of drugs, out of value of the same basket in the year of reference(*).

Information and continuing education on drug use

PR33:

Number of prescribers having direct access to a (national) drug formulary, out of total number of prescribers surveyed(*).

PR34:

Number of training sessions on drug use for prescribers in the last year, out of average number of training sessions organized in the past three years.

PR35:

Number of prescribers who have attended at least one training session in the last year, out of total number of prescribers surveyed(*).

PR36:

Number of issues of independent drug bulletins published in the last year, out of average number of issues of independent drug bulletins published per year in the past three years.

PR37:

Average number of copies of independent drug bulletins sent to prescribers, out of total number of prescribers.

PR38:

Amount spent on public education campaigns on drug use, out of total amount spent on public health education campaigns.

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