Educational Initiatives for Medical and Pharmacy Students about Drug Promotion: An International Cross-Sectional Survey - EDM Research Series No. 036
(2005; 61 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contentsExecutive summary
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentMethods
Close this folderResults
View the documentSample characteristics
Open this folder and view contentsHow is education on drug promotion included within the curriculum?
View the documentInvolvement of pharmaceutical sales representatives
Close this folderMain objectives for education about drug promotion
View the documentTesting and evaluation
View the documentOpinions on success of educational programme
View the documentMain barriers to success
View the documentCourse materials
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix 1: Sample questionnaire
View the documentAppendix 2: Country breakdown in total
 

Main objectives for education about drug promotion

Table 8 describes what the educators were aiming to achieve in educating pharmacy and medical students about drug promotion. The most common goals were critical appraisal of promotion, increased use of independent information sources, and improvements in prescribing or dispensing. There were some differences by health profession, with for example more pharmacy than medical respondents aiming to educate students about how to obtain beneficial information from drug promotion. Table 8a provides a breakdown by region.

Table 8: Main objectives

 

Pharmacy
n=91

Medical
n=137

Combined
n=228

Teach critical appraisal of drug promotion

71 (78%)

105 (77%)

176 (77%)

Increase students’ use of independent information sources

71 (78%)

103 (75%)

174 (76%)

Improve prescribing or dispensing behaviour after graduation*

42 (46%)

104 (76%)

146 (64%)

Expose students to different perspectives*

60 (66%)

59 (43%)

119 (52%)

Increase students’ ability to extract beneficial information from drug promotion*

48 (53%)

50 (37%)

98 (43%)

Change students’ attitudes towards drug promotion*

26 (29%)

69 (50%)

95 (42%)

Improve behaviour related to gifts and sponsorship

27 (30%)

61 (45%)

88 (39%)

Decrease students’ use of drug promotion*

10 (11%)

33 (24%)

43 (19%)

Increase students’ use of drug promotion*

10 (12%)

5 (4%)

15 (7%)

Other

9 (10%)

11 (8%)

20 (9%)

 

* responses differed pharmacy vs. medicine, p<.05 chi-square (uncorrected)


Table 8a: Main objectives - by region

 

Europe
n=92

Americas
n=56

W. Pacific
n=31

Africa
n=20

SE Asia
n=20

E Medit.
n=9

Teach critical appraisal of drug promotion

76 (83%)

44 (79%)

22 (71%)

15 (75%)

14 (70%)

5 (56%)

Increase students’ use of independent information sources

70 (76%)

42 (75%)

24 (77%)

16 (80%)

14 (70%)

8 (89%)

Improve prescribing or dispensing after graduation

62 (67%)

29 (52%)

21 (68%)

15 (75%)

12 (60%)

7 (78%)

Change students’ attitudes towards drug promotion

44 (48%)

18 (32%)

14 (45%)

8 (40%)

8 (40%)

3 (33%)

Expose students to different perspectives

43 (47%)

29 (52%)

14 (45%)

12 (60%)

15 (75%)

6 (67%)

Improve behaviour related to gifts and sponsorship

36 (39%)

23 (41%)

13 (42%)

6 (30%)

8 (40%)

2 (22%)

Increase students’ ability to extract beneficial information from promotion

35 (38%)

26 (46%)

8 (26%)

11 (55%)

12 (60%)

6 (67%)

Decrease students’ use of drug promotion

18 (20%)

8 (14%)

8 (26%)

4 (20%)

3 (15%)

2 (22%)

Increase students’ use of promotion

2 (2%)

2 (4%)

4 (13%)

1 (5%)

3 (15%)

3 (33%)

Other

4 (4%)

8 (14%)

4 (13%)

1 (5%)

1 (5%)

2 (22%)

As shown in the Table 8b below, goals were similar among those devoting less or more time to education. Those spending 10 or more hours were more likely to state that they wished to expose students to different perspectives.

Table 8b: Main objectives - by total educational time*

 

1/2 day or less
(n=69)

Four to nine hours
(n=66)

10 or more hours
(n=89)

To increase students’ use of independent information sources

49 (71%)

45 (68%)

76 (84%)

To teach critical appraisal of drug promotion

48 (70%)

54 (81%)

71 (80%)

To expose students to different perspectives*

28 (41%)

32 (49%)

59 (66%)

To improve prescribing or dispensing behaviour after graduation

43 (62%)

43 (65%)

57 (64%)

To increase students’ ability to extract beneficial information from drug promotion

26 (38%)

27 (41%)

45 (51%)

To change students’ attitudes towards drug promotion

28 (41%)

28 (42%)

37 (42%)

To improve behaviour related to gifts and sponsorship

26 (38%)

27 (41%)

34 (38%)

To decrease students’ use of drug promotion

15 (22%)

12 (18%)

14 (16%)

To increase students’ use of drug promotion

3 (4%)

3 (5%)

9 (10%)

Other

8 (11%)

5 (8%)

7 (8%)

 

* values missing in 4 cases


Table 8c: If they marked ‘other’, what was it?

Africa

Medical

Issues relating to dispensing and regulations with regards promotions

Americas

Pharmacy

To understand the relationship between increases in spending on promotion associated with the increase in total pharmaceutical expenditures
To raise awareness of first year students of the impact of DTCA on the public and healthcare systems
Provide a thorough description of pharmaceutical marketing efforts in the US and how that may impact them on a professional level.
Enterarle del mal uso que se hace de las técnicas de mercadeo para inducir al uso irracional de medicamentos y con ello a la profesión farmacéutica.

Medical

To have students understand and manage potential conflicts of interest
Teach about ethical and professional behaviours
I am trying to open their eyes so they can see for themselves and will be more sceptical in future. I think a more comprehensive set of goals would be desirable but curriculum might not allow time for it.
Hacerle ver a educandos la posible relación entre uso irracional medicamento y promoción irracional de estos. Enfocar que industria en muchas ocasiones persigue medicalizacion de sociedad y medicamento como bien de consumo y no como derecho primordial
Encourage habits based on critical thinking

South-East Asia

Pharmacy

Related to departments, pharmacy students are taught on both, pro and con

Medical

Rational prescribing and rational therapy

Europe

Pharmacy

To inform students of drug promotion
Apprendre a concevoir et mettre en oeuvre un marketing “éthique”

Medical

To make them understand the market dynamics in the field
To inform students about conflicts of interest: pharmaceutical company plus shareholders versus public health, society, stakeholders

Western Pacific

Pharmacy

Basic level knowledge on drug promotion

Medical

To make students aware of the influence of promotion on prescribing behaviour, and to provide an alternative framework for developing the personal formularies
Costs of new and old drugs versus benefits
Reduce overconfidence

Eastern Mediterranean

Pharmacy

To draw attention towards possible counterfeit & substandard pharmaceutical products that are entering into the market and the promotion for their distribution, prescribing, dispensing and use by both the professionals and the public. Improve the communications skills of students

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