Educational Initiatives for Medical and Pharmacy Students about Drug Promotion: An International Cross-Sectional Survey - EDM Research Series No. 036
(2005; 61 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contentsExecutive summary
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentMethods
Close this folderResults
View the documentSample characteristics
Close this folderHow is education on drug promotion included within the curriculum?
View the documentAmount of education
View the documentTypes of promotion covered
View the documentRegulation and ethics of drug promotion
View the documentEducational techniques
View the documentInvolvement of pharmaceutical sales representatives
Open this folder and view contentsMain objectives for education about drug promotion
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix 1: Sample questionnaire
View the documentAppendix 2: Country breakdown in total
 

Regulation and ethics of drug promotion

Three-quarters of respondents reported that they covered the regulation and/or ethics of drug promotion, with the highest proportion of these reporting that national government regulation of promotion was covered (see Table 5). There was little coverage of international standards such as the WHO Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion or the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA) Code of Marketing Practices. Many countries do not have a functioning drug regulatory agency or other national private or public sector organizations responsible for overseeing drug promotion. However, companies that are members of the IFPMA, the international pharmaceutical industry association, are subject to the IFPMA Code.

Table 5a describes responses by region. Differences would be expected by region, given the differences in national approaches to regulation and/or resources available for drug regulation. It is unsurprising, for example, that fewer European respondents mentioned the IFPMA Code than respondents from Africa, as in Europe national regulations are more likely to be in place.

Table 5: Regulation and ethics of drug promotion

 

Pharmacy
n=91

Medical
n=137

Combined
n=228

Are regulation and ethics covered?

70 (77%)

100 (73%)

170 (75%)

No response

4 (5%)

5 (4%)

9 (4%)

By region

     

Africa

11 (92%)

7 (88%)

18 (90%)

Western Pacific

7 (70%)

20 (95%)

27 (87%)

Americas

23 (77%)

21 (81%)

44 (79%)

South-East Asia

7 (78%)

8 (73%)

15 (75%)

Europe

17 (77%)

45 (64%)

62 (67%)

Eastern Mediterranean

5 (63%)

0

5 (56%)

Types of regulation covered

Pharmacy
n=91

Medical
n=137

Combined
n=228

National government regulation of promotion*

62 (68%)

66 (48%)

128 (56%)

Professional codes on interactions w/ industry

52 (58%)

62 (45%)

114 (50%)

Ethical issues - interactions with industry

40 (44%)

59 (43%)

99 (43%)

National industry self-regulatory codes

32 (35%)

32 (23%)

64 (28%)

WHO Ethical Criteria

20 (22%)

27 (20%)

47 (21%)

IFPMA Code of Marketing Practices

11 (12%)

7 (5%)

18 (8%)

Other

2 (2%)

10 (7%)

12 (5%)

Most responses to ‘other’ specified categories above, such as the American Medical Association code, Swedish Regulatory Committee, etc.; one on gifts (ethical)

* pharmacy and medical school responses differed significantly, p<.05


Table 5a: Types of regulation covered - by region

 

Europe
(n=92)

Americas
(n=56)

W. Pacific
(n=31)

Africa
(n=20)

SE Asia
(n=20)

E. Mediterr
(n=9)

National government regulation of promotion

51 (55%)

31 (55%)

19 (61%)

13 (65%)

10 (50%)

4 (44%)

Professional codes on interactions w/ industry

41 (45%)

37 (66%)

15 (48%)

12 (60%)

7 (35%)

2 (22%)

Ethical issues - interactions with industry

31 (34%)

30 (54%)

22 (71%)

11 (55%)

3 (15%)

2 (22%)

Industry self-regulatory codes

23 (25%)

20 (36%)

11 (36%)

6 (30%)

3 (15%)

1 (11%)

WHO Ethical Criteria

12 (13%)

7 (13%)

7 (23%)

9 (45%)

10 (50%)

2 (22%)

IFPMA Code of Marketing Practices

5 (5%)

3 (5%)

3 (10%)

3 (15%)

4 (20%)

0

to previous section
to next section
 
 
The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO. Last updated: June 25, 2014