How to Investigate the Use of Medicines by Consumers
(2004; 98 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
Open this folder and view contents1. Why study medicines use by consumers
Open this folder and view contents2. What influences medicines use by consumers
Open this folder and view contents3. How to study medicines use in communities
Open this folder and view contents4. Prioritizing and analysing community medicines use problems
Open this folder and view contents5. Sampling
Open this folder and view contents6. Data analysis
Close this folder7. Monitoring and evaluating rational medicines use interventions in the community
View the document7.1 Introduction
View the document7.2 Monitoring
View the document7.3 Evaluation
View the document7.4 Summary guidelines
View the documentBack cover

7.4 Summary guidelines

Evaluation is an integral part of any communications plan. It is important to begin planning the evaluation right from the beginning of your project. The following guidelines can ensure that you include evaluation components in your programme in an appropriate way:

• decide at the beginning of a programme how you are going to evaluate it

• make an evaluation plan

• prepare a set of realistic, achievable and measurable outcome measures which relate directly to your communication objectives

• evaluate both the process of the intervention and its effects

• look for changes in the short-term as well as long-term; find out if any benefits are long lasting

• encourage participation of target groups in all stages of your evaluation

• share your successes and failures with others.

An evaluation plan should have the following elements:

1. A statement of communication objectives

2. Evaluation questions (process and effect)

3. Key outcome measures

4. Methodology (use of controls or not; how to prevent ‘contamination’, possible confounding variables)

5. Data-collection methods

6. Plan for data processing and analysis

7. Plan for dissemination and use of results.

8. Discussion of known limitations to the evaluation strategy.

Additional reading

Feuerstein M (1986). Partners in evaluation: evaluating development and community programmes with participants. London, Macmillan.

Fresle DA, Wolfheim C (1997). Public education in rational drug use: a global survey. Geneva, World Health Organization. (WHO/DAP/97.5).

Loevinsohn BP (1990). Health education interventions in developing countries: a methodological review of published articles. International Journal of Epidemiology, 19(4):788-794.

Marsh VM et al. (1999) Changing home treatment of childhood fevers by training shop keepers in rural Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 4(5):383-389.

Øvretveit J (1998). Evaluating health interventions. Trowbridge, UK, Open University Press.

Piotrow P et al. (1997). Health communication. Lessons from family planning and reproductive health. Westport, CT, Praeger Publishers.

Suryawati S, Santoso B (1995). Self-learning for self-medication: an alternative to improve the rational use of OTCs. Report of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Unpublished.

Web sites

International Conference on Improving Rational Drug Use - Poster presentations INRUD/WHO Promoting Rational Drug Use Course. Decision-Making for Rational Drug Use Interventions module.


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