WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh Report
(2003; 148 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentWHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. General policy
Open this folder and view contents3. Quality control - specifications and tests
View the document4. Quality control - international reference materials
Open this folder and view contents5. Quality control - national laboratories
Open this folder and view contents6. Quality assurance - good manufacturing practices
Open this folder and view contents7. Quality assurance - inspection
Open this folder and view contents8. Quality assurance - distribution and trade-related
Open this folder and view contents9. Quality assurance - risk analysis
Open this folder and view contents10. Quality assurance - drug supply
Open this folder and view contents11. Quality assurance - storage
View the document12. International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) programme
Open this folder and view contents13. Miscellaneous
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 1 Recommendations on risk of transmitting animal spongiform encephalopathy agents via medicinal products
View the documentAnnex 2 The International Pharmacopoeia: revised concepts and future perspectives
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 3 Guidelines on Good Manufacturing Practices for radiopharmaceutical products
Close this folderAnnex 4 Good Manufacturing Practices for pharmaceutical products: main principles
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentGeneral considerations
View the documentGlossary
Close this folderQuality management in the drug industry: philosophy and essential elements1
View the document1. Quality assurance
View the document2. Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products (GMP)
View the document3. Sanitation and hygiene
View the document4. Qualification and validation
View the document5. Complaints
View the document6. Product recalls
Open this folder and view contents7. Contract production and analysis
Open this folder and view contents8. Self-inspection and quality audits
Open this folder and view contents9. Personnel
View the document10. Training
View the document11. Personal hygiene
Open this folder and view contents12. Premises
View the document13. Equipment
Open this folder and view contents14. Materials
Open this folder and view contents15. Documentation
Close this folder16. Good practices in production
View the documentGeneral
View the documentPrevention of cross-contamination and bacterial contamination during production
View the documentProcessing operations
View the documentPackaging operations
Open this folder and view contents17. Good practices in quality control
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 5 Model certificate of Good Manufacturing Practices
View the documentAnnex 6 Guidance on Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP): inspection report
View the documentAnnex 7 Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) methodology to pharmaceuticals
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 8 Procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of pharmaceutical products for purchase by United Nations agencies
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 9 Guide to good storage practices for pharmaceuticals1
View the documentBack cover
Packaging operations

16.25 When the programme for packaging operations is being set up, particular attention should be given to minimizing the risk of cross-contamination, mix-ups or substitutions. Different products should not be packaged in close proximity unless there is physical segregation or an alternative system that will provide equal assurance.

16.26 Before packaging operations are begun, steps should be taken to ensure that the work area, packaging lines, printing machines and other equipment are clean and free from any products, materials or documents used previously and which are not required for the current operation. The line clearance should be performed according to an appropriate procedure and checklist, and recorded.

16.27 The name and batch number of the product being handled should be displayed at each packaging station or line.

16.28 Normally, filling and sealing should be followed as quickly as possible by labelling. If labelling is delayed, appropriate procedures should be applied to ensure that no mix-ups or mislabelling can occur.

16.29 The correct performance of any printing (e.g. of code numbers or expiry dates) done separately or in the course of the packaging should be checked and recorded. Attention should be paid to printing by hand, which should be rechecked at regular intervals.

16.30 Special care should be taken when cut labels are used and when overprinting is carried out off-line, and in hand-packaging operations. Roll-feed labels are normally preferable to cut labels in helping to avoid mix-ups. On-line verification of all labels by automated electronic means can be helpful in preventing mix-ups, but checks should be made to ensure that any electronic code readers, label counters, or similar devices are operating correctly. When labels are attached manually, in-process control checks should be performed more frequently.

16.31 Printed and embossed information on packaging materials should be distinct and resistant to fading or erasing.

16.32 Regular on-line control of the product during packaging should include at least checks on:

(a) the general appearance of the packages;
(b) whether the packages are complete;
(c) whether the correct products and packaging materials are used;
(d) whether any overprinting is correct;
(e) the correct functioning of line monitors.

Samples taken away from the packaging line should not be returned.

16.33 Products that have been involved in an unusual event during packaging should be reintroduced into the process only after special inspection, investigation and approval by authorized personnel. A detailed record should be kept of this operation.

16.34 Any significant or unusual discrepancy observed during reconciliation of the amount of bulk product and printed packaging materials and the number of units produced should be investigated, satisfactorily accounted for, and recorded before release.

16.35 Upon completion of a packaging operation, any unused batch-coded packaging materials should be destroyed and the destruction recorded. A documented procedure requiring checks to be performed before returning unused materials should be followed if uncoded printed materials are returned to stock.

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