WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh Report
(2003; 148 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentWHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. General policy
Open this folder and view contents3. Quality control - specifications and tests
View the document4. Quality control - international reference materials
Open this folder and view contents5. Quality control - national laboratories
Open this folder and view contents6. Quality assurance - good manufacturing practices
Open this folder and view contents7. Quality assurance - inspection
Open this folder and view contents8. Quality assurance - distribution and trade-related
Open this folder and view contents9. Quality assurance - risk analysis
Open this folder and view contents10. Quality assurance - drug supply
Open this folder and view contents11. Quality assurance - storage
View the document12. International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) programme
Open this folder and view contents13. Miscellaneous
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 1 Recommendations on risk of transmitting animal spongiform encephalopathy agents via medicinal products
View the documentAnnex 2 The International Pharmacopoeia: revised concepts and future perspectives
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 3 Guidelines on Good Manufacturing Practices for radiopharmaceutical products
Close this folderAnnex 4 Good Manufacturing Practices for pharmaceutical products: main principles
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentGeneral considerations
View the documentGlossary
Close this folderQuality management in the drug industry: philosophy and essential elements1
View the document1. Quality assurance
View the document2. Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products (GMP)
View the document3. Sanitation and hygiene
View the document4. Qualification and validation
View the document5. Complaints
View the document6. Product recalls
Open this folder and view contents7. Contract production and analysis
Open this folder and view contents8. Self-inspection and quality audits
Open this folder and view contents9. Personnel
View the document10. Training
View the document11. Personal hygiene
Open this folder and view contents12. Premises
View the document13. Equipment
Open this folder and view contents14. Materials
Open this folder and view contents15. Documentation
Close this folder16. Good practices in production
View the documentGeneral
View the documentPrevention of cross-contamination and bacterial contamination during production
View the documentProcessing operations
View the documentPackaging operations
Open this folder and view contents17. Good practices in quality control
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 5 Model certificate of Good Manufacturing Practices
View the documentAnnex 6 Guidance on Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP): inspection report
View the documentAnnex 7 Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) methodology to pharmaceuticals
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 8 Procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of pharmaceutical products for purchase by United Nations agencies
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 9 Guide to good storage practices for pharmaceuticals1
View the documentBack cover
 
Prevention of cross-contamination and bacterial contamination during production

16.10 When dry materials and products are used in production, special precautions should be taken to prevent the generation and dissemination of dust. Provision should be made for proper air control (e.g. supply and extraction of air of suitable quality).

16.11 Contamination of a starting material or of a product by another material or product must be avoided. This risk of accidental cross-contamination arises from the uncontrolled release of dust, gases, particles, vapours, sprays or organisms from materials and products in process, from residues on equipment, from intruding insects, and from operators’ clothing, skin, etc. The significance of this risk varies with the type of contaminant and of the product being contaminated. Among the most hazardous contaminants are highly sensitizing materials, biological preparations such as living organisms, certain hormones, cytotoxic substances, and other highly active materials. Products in which contamination is likely to be most significant are those administered by injection or applied to open wounds and those given in large doses and/or over a long time.

16.12 Cross-contamination should be avoided by taking appropriate technical or organizational measures, for example:

(a) carrying out production in dedicated and self-contained areas (which may be required for products such as penicillins, live vaccines, live bacterial preparations and certain other biologicals);

(b) conducting campaign production (separation in time) followed by appropriate cleaning in accordance with a validated cleaning procedure;

(c) providing appropriately designed airlocks, pressure differentials, and air supply and extraction systems;

(d) minimizing the risk of contamination caused by recirculation or re-entry of untreated or insufficiently treated air;

(e) wearing protective clothing where products or materials are handled;

(f) using cleaning and decontamination procedures of known effectiveness;

(g) using a “closed system” in production;

(h) testing for residues;

(i) using cleanliness status labels on equipment.


16.13 Measures to prevent cross-contamination and their effectiveness should be checked periodically according to standard operating procedures.

16.14 Production areas where susceptible products are processed should undergo periodic environmental monitoring (e.g. for microbiological monitoring and particulate matter where appropriate).

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