WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh Report
(2003; 148 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentWHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. General policy
Open this folder and view contents3. Quality control - specifications and tests
View the document4. Quality control - international reference materials
Open this folder and view contents5. Quality control - national laboratories
Open this folder and view contents6. Quality assurance - good manufacturing practices
Open this folder and view contents7. Quality assurance - inspection
Open this folder and view contents8. Quality assurance - distribution and trade-related
Open this folder and view contents9. Quality assurance - risk analysis
Open this folder and view contents10. Quality assurance - drug supply
Open this folder and view contents11. Quality assurance - storage
View the document12. International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) programme
Open this folder and view contents13. Miscellaneous
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 1 Recommendations on risk of transmitting animal spongiform encephalopathy agents via medicinal products
View the documentAnnex 2 The International Pharmacopoeia: revised concepts and future perspectives
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 3 Guidelines on Good Manufacturing Practices for radiopharmaceutical products
Close this folderAnnex 4 Good Manufacturing Practices for pharmaceutical products: main principles
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentGeneral considerations
View the documentGlossary
Close this folderQuality management in the drug industry: philosophy and essential elements1
View the document1. Quality assurance
View the document2. Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products (GMP)
View the document3. Sanitation and hygiene
View the document4. Qualification and validation
View the document5. Complaints
View the document6. Product recalls
Open this folder and view contents7. Contract production and analysis
Open this folder and view contents8. Self-inspection and quality audits
Open this folder and view contents9. Personnel
View the document10. Training
View the document11. Personal hygiene
Open this folder and view contents12. Premises
View the document13. Equipment
Open this folder and view contents14. Materials
Open this folder and view contents15. Documentation
Open this folder and view contents16. Good practices in production
Open this folder and view contents17. Good practices in quality control
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 5 Model certificate of Good Manufacturing Practices
View the documentAnnex 6 Guidance on Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP): inspection report
View the documentAnnex 7 Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) methodology to pharmaceuticals
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 8 Procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of pharmaceutical products for purchase by United Nations agencies
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 9 Guide to good storage practices for pharmaceuticals1
View the documentBack cover
 

13. Equipment

13.1 Equipment must be located, designed, constructed, adapted, and maintained to suit the operations to be carried out. The layout and design of equipment must aim to minimize the risk of errors and permit effective cleaning and maintenance in order to avoid cross-contamination, build-up of dust or dirt, and, in general, any adverse effect on the quality of products.

13.2 Equipment should be installed in such a way as to minimize any risk of error or of contamination.

13.3 Fixed pipework should be clearly labelled to indicate the contents and, where applicable, the direction of flow.

13.4 All service pipings and devices should be adequately marked and special attention paid to the provision of non-interchangeable connections or adaptors for dangerous gases and liquids.

13.5 Balances and other measuring equipment of an appropriate range and precision should be available for production and control operations and should be calibrated on a scheduled basis.

13.6 Production equipment should be thoroughly cleaned on a scheduled basis.

13.7 Laboratory equipment and instruments should be suited to the testing procedures undertaken.

13.8 Washing, cleaning and drying equipment should be chosen and used so as not to be a source of contamination.

13.9 Production equipment should not present any hazard to the products. The parts of the production equipment that come into contact with the product must not be reactive, additive, or absorptive to an extent that would affect the quality of the product.

13.10 Defective equipment should be removed from production and quality control areas. If this is not possible, it should be clearly labelled as defective to prevent use.

13.11 Closed equipment should be used whenever appropriate. Where open equipment is used or equipment is opened, precautions should be taken to minimize contamination.

13.12 Non-dedicated equipment should be cleaned according to validated cleaning procedures between production of different pharmaceutical products to prevent cross-contamination.

13.13 Current drawings of critical equipment and support systems should be maintained.

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