WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 908 - Thirty-seventh Report
(2003; 148 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentWHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. General policy
Open this folder and view contents3. Quality control - specifications and tests
View the document4. Quality control - international reference materials
Open this folder and view contents5. Quality control - national laboratories
Open this folder and view contents6. Quality assurance - good manufacturing practices
Open this folder and view contents7. Quality assurance - inspection
Open this folder and view contents8. Quality assurance - distribution and trade-related
Open this folder and view contents9. Quality assurance - risk analysis
Open this folder and view contents10. Quality assurance - drug supply
Open this folder and view contents11. Quality assurance - storage
View the document12. International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) programme
Open this folder and view contents13. Miscellaneous
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 1 Recommendations on risk of transmitting animal spongiform encephalopathy agents via medicinal products
View the documentAnnex 2 The International Pharmacopoeia: revised concepts and future perspectives
Close this folderAnnex 3 Guidelines on Good Manufacturing Practices for radiopharmaceutical products
View the document1. Scope of these guidelines
View the document2. Principles
View the document3. Personnel
View the document4. Premises and equipment
View the document5. Production
View the document6. Labelling
View the document7. Production and distribution records
View the document8. Quality assurance and quality control
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 4 Good Manufacturing Practices for pharmaceutical products: main principles
View the documentAnnex 5 Model certificate of Good Manufacturing Practices
View the documentAnnex 6 Guidance on Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP): inspection report
View the documentAnnex 7 Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) methodology to pharmaceuticals
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 8 Procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of pharmaceutical products for purchase by United Nations agencies
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 9 Guide to good storage practices for pharmaceuticals1
View the documentBack cover

5. Production

5.1 Standard operating procedures (SOPs) must be available for all operating procedures and should be regularly reviewed and kept up to date for all manufacturing operations. All entries on batch records should be initiated by the operator and independently checked by another operator or supervisor.

5.2 Specifications for starting materials should include details of their source, origin and (where applicable) method of manufacture and of the controls used to ensure their suitability for use. Release of a finished product should be conditional on satisfactory results being obtained in the tests on starting materials.

5.3 Careful consideration should be given to the validation of sterilization methods.

5.4 A wide variety of equipment is used in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Equipment for chromatography should, in general, be dedicated to the preparation and purification of one or several products labelled with the same radionuclide to avoid radioactive cross-contamination. The life span of columns should be defined. Great care should be taken in cleaning, sterilizing and operating freeze-drying equipment used for the preparation of kits.

5.5 A list of critical equipment should be drawn up, including any equipment such as a balance, pyrogen oven, dose calibrator, sterilizing filter, etc., where an error in the reading or function could potentially cause harm to the patient being given the final product. These devices should be calibrated or tested at regular intervals and should be checked daily or before production is started. The results of these tests should be included in the daily production records.

5.6 Specific equipment for radioactive measurements may be required as well as radioactive reference standards. For the measurement of very short half-lives, national central laboratories should be contacted to calibrate the apparatus. Where this is not possible, alternative approaches, such as documented procedures, may be used.

5.7 In the case of labelling kits, freeze drying should be carried out as an aseptic procedure. If an inert gas such as nitrogen is used to fill vials, it must be filtered to remove possible microbial contamination.

5.8 The dispensing, packaging and transportation of radiopharmaceuticals should comply with the relevant national regulations and international guidelines (5).

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