Another challenge that faces developing countries in their efforts to improve availability and access to essential medicines relates to establishing efficient pharmaceutical management and procurement systems. Putting in place efficient management systems for pharmaceutical procurement can be a costly and complex process requiring vast resources and technical know-how. The problems can be particularly acute for small countries whose average drug prices are generally high due to lack of economies of scale. The cost of taking care of quality and supply chain issues is also high.
The lack of efficient and cost-effective management and procurement systems therefore has an effect on prices, on quality, on rational use of drugs as well as on availability of medicines generally. Consequently, the use of TRIPS flexibilities to improve availability and access to medicines faces challenges due to lack of resources and technical expertise to administer efficient pharmaceutical management and procurement systems.