Cost-Containment Mechanisms for Essential Medicines, Including Antiretrovirals, in China - Health Economics and Drugs Series No. 013
(2003; 30 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentTerms of reference
Close this folderIntroduction
View the documentCost-effective medicine selection
View the documentPrice information
View the documentInternational open tendering
View the documentVoluntary discount agreements
View the documentVoluntary licensing
View the documentCompulsory licensing
View the documentLocal state production
View the documentGovernment price controls
View the documentReduction of import and other taxes for essential medicines, and rational dispensing practices
View the documentPublic investment in R & D for new medicines: A mid- to long-term strategy
View the documentBackground and experiences with voluntary agreements
View the documentCountry rights to be protected in voluntary agreements for reduction of prices of medicines
Open this folder and view contentsCompulsory licensing - practical aspects and procedures
View the documentConcluding comments
View the documentList of persons contacted
View the documentFurther reading

Voluntary discount agreements

Two categories can be distinguished of voluntary agreements between supplier firms and developing country governments to supply differentially priced products:

a) initiatives where prices are negotiated at a central level, such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and the Green Light Committee (GLC);

b) initiatives where prices are negotiated at a disaggregated level, between suppliers and countries3.


3 Unpublished paper commissioned by WHO to Cheri Grace, 2002.

Voluntary agreements in the second category include those between firms and countries to supply discounted ARVs through the Accelerating Access Initiative (a collaboration between 5 UN agencies and 6 research-based pharmaceutical companies); as well as agreements between countries and Indian, Brazilian or other countries’ public or private pharmaceutical manufacturers. These agreements need to be assessed in terms of their price level, volume assured, duration of the deal and any other conditions which may be requested by the manufacturer.

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