(2003; 92 pages) [French] [Spanish]
3TC lamivudine (Epivir®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase Inhibitor
AAI United Nations Accelerating Access Initiative; Accelerated Access emerged out of the partnership initiated in May 2000 between the UN (UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, the World Bank and UNAIDS Secretariat) and five pharmaceutical companies (Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH, Bristol- Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co., Inc., and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (Roche); Abbott Laboratories Ltd. joined the initiative later) to increase access to HIV/AIDS care, treatment and support. AAI plays a role in facilitating price negotiations between developing country governments and ‘originator’ drug companies that are participating in the AAI.
ABC abacavir (Ziagen®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
ARVs Antiretroviral drugs
BMS Bristol-Myers Squibb
CDC Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
CIF‘Cost Insurance and Freight’ means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary tobring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
CIP‘Carriage and Insurance paid to...’ means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all the risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium.
d4T stavudine (Zerit®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
ddI didanosine (Videx®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
DDU‘Delivered duty unpaid’ means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto, other than, where applicable, any ‘duty’ (which term includes the responsibility for the risks of the carrying out of the customs formalities, and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. Such ‘duty’ has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for the import time.
EML Essential Medicines List. First published by WHO in 1977, it is meant to identify a list of medicines, which provide safe and effective treatment for the infectious and chronic diseases, which affect the vast majority of the world’s population. The 12th Updated List was published in April 2002 and includes 12 antiretrovirals.
EFV efavirenz (Stocrin®); non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
EXW‘Ex-works’ means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.
FOB‘Free on board’ means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
Generic drug According to WHO, a pharmaceutical product usually intended to be interchangeable with the innovator product, which is usually manufactured without a license from the innovator company. Generic products may be marketed either under a non-proprietary or approved name rather than a proprietary name.
GPO Governmental Pharmaceutical Organization (Thailand)
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
IDV indinavir (Crixivan®); protease inhibitor
LDCs Least Developed Countries, according to United Nations classification
MSD Merck Sharp & Dome (Merck & Co., Inc.)
MSF Médecins Sans Frontières
NGO Non Governmental Organization
NFV nelfinavir (Viracept®); protease inhibitor
NNRTI Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor
NRTI Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor
NtRTI Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor
NVP nevirapine (Viramune®); non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
PMTCT Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission
r ritonavir (Norvir®), low dose ritonavir used as a booster; protease inhibitor
SQV hgc saquinavir hard gel capsules (Invirase®); protease inhibitor
SQV sgc saquinavir soft gel capsules (Fortovase®); protease inhibitor
TDF tenofovir (Viread®); nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor
UNAIDS United Nations Joint Cosponsored Programme on HIV/AIDS, created in 1996, to lead, strengthen and support an expanded response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The six original Cosponsors are UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank. UNDCP joined in April 1999
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
WHO World Health Organization
ZDV zidovudine (Retrovir®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor