Sources and Prices of Selected Medicines and Diagnostics for People Living with HIV/AIDS
(2003; 92 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentGlossary
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Pricing
View the document3. Access to quality HIV/AIDS medicines and diagnostics
View the document4. Sources & prices of medicines
View the document5. Variation in price between surveys
View the documentAnnex 1A. Registration status of products included in the sources and prices survey
View the documentAnnex 1B. Index of manufacturers
View the documentAnnex 1C. Geographical distribution of par ticipating manufacturers
View the documentAnnex 2. WHO Bulk Procurement Scheme 2003
View the documentAnnex 3A. Summary of main characteristics of methods forCD4/CD8 lymphocyte determination
View the documentAnnex 3B. Summary of main characteristics of viral load technologies
View the documentAnnex 4. Further reading, references, and contacts
View the documentAnnex 5. Feedback and enquiry form
Close this folderAnnex 6. Untangling the web of price reductions: a pricing guide for the purchase of ARVs for developing countries
View the documentGeneral background and objectives
View the documentMethodology
View the documentLimitations of the current system
View the documentThe challenge of paediatric formulations
View the documentResearch and development for HIV/AIDS
View the documentThe Effects of Generic Competition
View the documentGuide to reading and using tables
Open this folder and view contentsTables
Close this folderAnnexes
View the documentAnnex 1: Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
View the documentAnnex 2: Human Development Index (HDI)
View the documentAnnex 3: Sub-Saharan countries
View the documentAnnex 4: World Bank low-income countries
View the documentAnnex 5: Company contacts
View the documentGlossary12
View the documentReferences


3TC lamivudine (Epivir®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase Inhibitor

AAI United Nations Accelerating Access Initiative; Accelerated Access emerged out of the partnership initiated in May 2000 between the UN (UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, the World Bank and UNAIDS Secretariat) and five pharmaceutical companies (Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH, Bristol- Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co., Inc., and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (Roche); Abbott Laboratories Ltd. joined the initiative later) to increase access to HIV/AIDS care, treatment and support. AAI plays a role in facilitating price negotiations between developing country governments and ‘originator’ drug companies that are participating in the AAI.

ABC abacavir (Ziagen®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor

AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

ARVs Antiretroviral drugs

BMS Bristol-Myers Squibb

CDC Centres for Disease Control and Prevention

CIF[5]‘Cost Insurance and Freight’ means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary tobring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

CIP[5]‘Carriage and Insurance paid to...’ means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all the risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium.

d4T stavudine (Zerit®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor

ddI didanosine (Videx®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor

DDU[5]‘Delivered duty unpaid’ means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto, other than, where applicable, any ‘duty’ (which term includes the responsibility for the risks of the carrying out of the customs formalities, and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. Such ‘duty’ has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for the import time.

EML Essential Medicines List. First published by WHO in 1977, it is meant to identify a list of medicines, which provide safe and effective treatment for the infectious and chronic diseases, which affect the vast majority of the world’s population. The 12th Updated List was published in April 2002 and includes 12 antiretrovirals.

EFV efavirenz (Stocrin®); non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor

EXW[5]‘Ex-works’ means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.

FOB[5]‘Free on board’ means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

Generic drug According to WHO, a pharmaceutical product usually intended to be interchangeable with the innovator product, which is usually manufactured without a license from the innovator company. Generic products may be marketed either under a non-proprietary or approved name rather than a proprietary name.

GPO Governmental Pharmaceutical Organization (Thailand)

GSK GlaxoSmithKline

HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus

IDV indinavir (Crixivan®); protease inhibitor

LDCs Least Developed Countries, according to United Nations classification

MSD Merck Sharp & Dome (Merck & Co., Inc.)

MSF Médecins Sans Frontières

NGO Non Governmental Organization

NFV nelfinavir (Viracept®); protease inhibitor

NNRTI Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

NRTI Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

NtRTI Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

NVP nevirapine (Viramune®); non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor

PMTCT Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission

r ritonavir (Norvir®), low dose ritonavir used as a booster; protease inhibitor

SQV hgc saquinavir hard gel capsules (Invirase®); protease inhibitor

SQV sgc saquinavir soft gel capsules (Fortovase®); protease inhibitor

TDF tenofovir (Viread®); nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor

UNAIDS United Nations Joint Cosponsored Programme on HIV/AIDS, created in 1996, to lead, strengthen and support an expanded response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The six original Cosponsors are UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank. UNDCP joined in April 1999

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNFPA United Nations Population Fund

UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund

WHO World Health Organization

ZDV zidovudine (Retrovir®); nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor

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The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO. Last updated: October 29, 2018