1. Fornai E et al. Smoking reduction in smokers compliant to a smoking cessation trial with nicotine patch. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, 2001, 56: 5 - 10.
2. The World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002.
3. Killen JD et al. Nicotine patch and paroxetine for smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 2000, 68: 883 - 889.
4. WHO Tobacco Free Initiative Project. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (available on the Internet at http://tobacco.who.int/).
5. Jha P, Chaloupka FJ. Curbing the epidemic: Governments and the economics of tobacco control. Washington, DC, World Bank, 1999.
6. Jha P, Chaloupka FJ. The economics of global control. British Medical Journal, 2000, 321: 358 - 361.
7. Westman EC, Levin ED, Rose JE. The nicotine patch in smoking cessation. A randomized trial with telephone counseling. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1993, 153: 1917 - 1923.
8. Richmond RL, Harris K, de Almeida N. The transdermal nicotine patch: results of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Medical Journal of Australia, 1994, 161: 130 - 135.
9. Badgett RG, Tanaka DJ. Is screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease justified? Preventive Medicine, 1997, 26: 466 - 472.
10. Bolliger CT et al. Smoking reduction with oral nicotine inhalers: double blind, randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety. British Medical Journal, 2000, 321: 329 - 333.
11. Effectiveness of a nicotine patch in helping people stop smoking: results of a randomised trial in general practice. Imperial Cancer Research Fund General Practice Research Group. British Medical Journal, 1993, 306: 1304 - 1308.
12. Gourlay SG et al. Double blind trial of repeated treatment with transdermal nicotine for relapsed smokers. British Medical Journal, 1995, 311: 363 - 366.
13. Kornitzer M et al. Combined use of nicotine patch and gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Preventive Medicine, 1995, 24: 41 - 47.
14. Prochaska JO. The transtheoretical approach: Crossing traditional boundaries of therapy. Irwin, Homewood, IL, Dow Jones, 1984.
15. Russell MA et al. Targeting heavy smokers in general practice: randomised controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches. British Medical Journal, 1993, 306: 1308 - 1312.
16. Saizow RB. Physician-delivered smoking intervention. Journal - Oklahoma State Medical Association, 1992, 84: 612 - 617.
17. Tonnesen P et al. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates: results from the European CEASE trial. Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation. European Respiratory Society. European Respiratory Journal, 1999, 13: 238 - 246.
18. Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Six-month results from two multicenter controlled clinical trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1991, 266: 3133 - 3138.
19. Timmreck TC, Randolph JF. Smoking cessation: clinical steps to improve compliance. Geriatrics, 1993, 48: 63 - 66.
20. Johnson RE et al. Nicotine chewing gum use in the outpatient care setting. Journal of Family Practice, 1992, 34: 61 - 65.
21. Razavi D et al. Maintaining abstinence from cigarette smoking: effectiveness of group counselling and factors predicting outcome. European Journal of Cancer, 1999, 35: 1238 - 1247.
22. Martin PD, Robinson GM. The safety, tolerability and efficacy of transdermal nicotine (Nicotinell TTS) in initially hospitalised patients. New Zealand Medical Journal, 1995, 108: 6 - 8.
23. Rigotti NA et al. Smoking by patients in a smoke-free hospital: prevalence, predictors, and implications. Preventive Medicine, 2000, 31: 159 - 166.
24. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Smoking Cessation Clinical Practice Guideline. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1996, 275: 1270 - 1280.
25. Alterman AI et al. Nicodermal patch adherence and its correlates. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 1999, 53: 159 - 165.
26. Bushnell FK et al. Smoking cessation in military personnel. Military Medicine, 1997, 162: 715 - 719.
27. Teräsalmi E et al. Pharmacists against Smoking: Research Report 2001. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, 2001.
28. Anthonisen NR et al. Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV1. The Lung Health Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1994, 272: 1497 - 1505.
29. Danielsson T, Rossner S, Westin A. Open randomised trial of intermittent very low energy diet together with nicotine gum for stopping smoking in women who gained weight in previous attempts to quit. British Medical Journal, 1999, 319: 490 - 493.
30. Gourlay SG et al. Prospective study of factors predicting outcome of transdermal nicotine treatment in smoking cessation. British Medical Journal, 1994, 309: 842 - 846.
31. Killen JD et al. Do heavy smokers benefit from higher dose nicotine patch therapy? Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1999, 7: 226 - 233.
32. Solomon LJ et al. Free nicotine patches plus proactive telephone peer support to help low-income women stop smoking. Preventive Medicine, 2000, 31: 68 - 74.
33. Dornelas EA et al. A randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation counseling after myocardial infarction. Preventive Medicine, 2000, 30: 261 - 268.
34. Kviz FJ, Crittenden KS, Warnecke RB. Factors associated with nonparticipation among registrants for a self-help, community-based smoking cessation intervention. Addictive Behaviors, 1992, 17: 533 - 542.
35. Orleans CT et al. Use of transdermal nicotine in a state-level prescription plan for the elderly. A first look at 'real-world' patch users. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1994, 271: 601 - 607.
36. Sonderskov J et al. Nicotine patches in smoking cessation: a randomized trial among over-the-counter customers in Denmark. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1997, 145: 309 - 318.
37. Hatch CL, Canaan T, Anderson G. Pharmacology of the pulmonary diseases. Dental Clinics of North America, 1996, 40: 521 - 541.
38. Meliska CJ et al. Immune function in cigarette smokers who quit smoking for 31 days. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 1995, 95: 901 - 910.
39. O'Hara P et al. Design and results of the initial intervention program for the Lung Health Study. The Lung Health Study Research Group. Preventive Medicine, 1993, 22: 304 - 315.
40. Pierce JR, Jr. Stroke following application of a nicotine patch [Letter]. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 1994, 28: 402.
41. Millard RW, Waranch HR, McEntee M. Compliance to nicotine gum recommendations in a multicomponent group smoking cessation program: an exploratory study. Addictive Behaviors, 1992, 17: 201 - 207.
42. Persico AM. Predictors of smoking cessation in a sample of Italian smokers. International Journal of the Addictions, 1992, 27: 683 - 695.
43. Shiffman S et al. The efficacy of computer-tailored smoking cessation material as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 2001, 64: 35 - 46.
44. Fagerstrom KO. Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 1978, 3: 235 - 241.
45. Ginsberg JP et al. The relationship between a history of depression and adherence to a multicomponent smoking-cessation program. Addictive Behaviors, 1997, 22: 783 - 787.
46. Killen JD et al. Nicotine patch and paroxetine for smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 2000, 68: 883 - 889.
47. Curry SJ. Self-help interventions for smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 1993, 61: 790 - 803.
48. Warnecke RB et al. The second Chicago televised smoking cessation program: a 24-month follow-up. American Journal of Public Health, 1992, 82: 835 - 840.
49. Raw M. Smoking Cessation Guidelines for Health Professionals. Thorax, 1998, 53: S1 - S19.
50. Torrecilla M et al. [The physician and the patient in the decision to quit smoking. Effect of the initiative on the result of the intervention.] [Spanish] Archivos de Bronconeumologia, 2001, 37: 127 - 134.
51. Dresler CM et al. Smoking cessation and lung cancer resection. Chest, 1996, 110: 1199 - 1202.
52. Smith TM, Winters FD. Smoking cessation: a clinical study of the transdermal nicotine patch. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 1996, 95: 655 - 656.
53. Hajek P, Taylor TZ, Mills P. Brief intervention during hospital admission to help patients to give up smoking after myocardial infarction and bypass surgery: randomised controlled trial. British Medical journal, 324: 1 - 6.
54. West R. Helping patients in hospital to quit smoking. British Medical Journal, 2002, 324: 64.