Adherence to Long-Term Therapies - Evidence for Action
(2003; 211 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentScientific writers
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentTake-home messages
Open this folder and view contentsSection I - Setting the scene
Open this folder and view contentsSection II - Improving adherence rates: guidance for countries
Close this folderSection III - Disease-Specific Reviews
Open this folder and view contentsChapter VII - Asthma
Open this folder and view contentsChapter VIII - Cancer (Palliative care)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter IX - Depression
Close this folderChapter X - Diabetes
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Treatment of diabetes
View the document3. Definition of adherence
View the document4. Prevalence of adherence to recommendations for diabetes treatment
View the document5. Correlates of adherence
View the document6. Interventions
View the document7. Methodological and conceptual issues in research on adherence to treatment for diabetes
View the document8. Conclusions
View the document9. References
Open this folder and view contentsChapter XI - Epilepsy
Open this folder and view contentsChapter XII - Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Open this folder and view contentsChapter XIII - Hypertension
Open this folder and view contentsChapter XIV - Tobacco smoking cessation
Open this folder and view contentsChapter XV - Tuberculosis
Open this folder and view contentsAnnexes
Open this folder and view contentsWhere to find a copy of this book

3. Definition of adherence

Contemporary perspectives on diabetes care accord a central role to patient self-care, or self-management. Self-care implies that the patient actively monitors and responds to changing environmental and biological conditions by making adaptive adjustments in the different aspects of diabetes treatment in order to maintain adequate metabolic control and reduce the probability of complications (21). The self-care behaviours involved in achieving adequate metabolic control and avoiding long-term complications are: home glucose monitoring (in blood or urine); adjustment of food intake, especially of carbohydrates, to meet daily needs and match available insulin; administration of medication (insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents); regular physical activity; foot care; regular medical monitoring visits, and other behaviours (i.e. dental care, appropriate clothing, etc.) that may vary depending on the type of diabetes (18).

Against this background of illness-related demands, adherence is conceptualized as the active, voluntary involvement of the patient in the management of his or her disease, by following a mutually agreed course of treatment and sharing responsibility between the patient and health care providers (22). Hentinen (23) described adherence to self-care as an active, responsible and flexible process of self-management, in which the patient strives to achieve good health by working in close collaboration with health care staff, instead of simply following rigidly prescribed rules. Other terms have been proposed such as "collaborative diabetes management" (24),"patient empowerment" (25) or "self-care behaviour management" (23,26 - 28). Another important concept is "inadvertent nonadherence" which occurs when a patient believes he or she is adhering to the recommended treatment but, through errors in knowledge or skill, is not doing so (29).

to previous section
to next section
The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO. Last updated: December 6, 2017