WHO Technical Report Series
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization was established in 1948 as a specialized agency of the United Nations serving as the directing and coordinating authority for international health matters and public health. One of WHO's constitutional functions is to provide objective and reliable information and advice in the field of human health, a responsibility that it fulfils in part through its extensive programme of publications.
The Organization seeks through its publications to support national health strategies and address the most pressing public health concerns of populations around the world. To respond to the needs of Member States at all levels of development, WHO publishes practical manuals, handbooks and training material for specific categories of health workers; internationally applicable guidelines and standards; reviews and analyses of health policies, programmes and research; and state-of-the-art consensus reports that offer technical advice and recommendations for decision-makers. These books are closely tied to the Organization's priority activities, encompassing disease prevention and control, the development of equitable health systems based on primary health care, and health promotion for individuals and communities. Progress towards better health for all also demands the global dissemination and exchange of information that draws on the knowledge and experience of all WHO's Member countries and the collaboration of world leaders in public health and the biomedical sciences.
To ensure the widest possible availability of authoritative information and guidance on health matters, WHO secures the broad international distribution of its publications and encourages their translation and adaptation. By helping to promote and protect health and prevent and control disease throughout the world, WHO's books contribute to achieving the Organization's principal objective - the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health.
The WHO Technical Report Series makes available the findings of various international groups of experts that provide WHO with the latest scientific and technical advice on a broad range of medical and public health subjects. Members of such expert groups serve without remuneration in their personal capacities rather than as representatives of governments or other bodies; their views do not necessarily reflect the decisions or the stated policy of WHO. An annual subscription to this series, comprising about six such reports, costs Sw. fr. 132.- or US$106.- (Sw. fr. 92.40 in developing countries). For further information, please contact Marketing and Dissemination, World Health Organization, 20 avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail email@example.com).
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
WHO Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines (13th: 2003: Geneva, Switzerland)
The selection and use of essential medicines: report of the WHO Expert Committee, 2003: (including the 13th model list of essential medicines).
(WHO technical report series; 920)
1. Essential drugs - standards 2. Formularies - standards 3. Drug information services -organization and administration 4. Drug utilization 5. Pharmaceutical preparations -classification 6. Guidelines I. Title II. Title: 13th model list of essential medicines III. Series.
ISBN 92 4 120920 8
(LC/NLM classification: QV 55)
© World Health Organization 2003
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Marketing and Dissemination, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: firstname.lastname@example.org). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications - whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution - should be addressed to Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: email@example.com).
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use.
This publication contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization.
Typeset in Hong Kong
Printed in Singapore
2004/15757 - SNPBest-set/SNP - 6000
WHO Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines
Geneva, 31 March-3 April 2003
* Each Member of the Committee signed a statement that he or she agreed not to participate in the review of any other matter under consideration in which there was a real or perceived conflict of interest.
Professor P.M. de Buschiazzo, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
Professor A. Helali, Director, Centre National de Pharmacovigilance et Matériovigilance, Ministère de la Santé et de la Population, Algiers, Algeria
Professor R. Laing, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
Professor J.-R. Laporte, Director, Fundacio Institut Català de Farmacologia, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Chairman)
Professor D. Ofori-Adjei, Director, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Dr E.M.A. Ombaka, Director, The Pharmaceutical Programme of Community Initiatives Support Services, World Council of Churches, Nairobi, Kenya
Dr M.M. Reidenberg, Chief, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The New York Hospital - Cornell Medical Centre, New York, NY, USA (Vice-Chairman)
Professor S. Suryawati, Centre for Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Policy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (Rapporteur)
Dr L. Wannmacher, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Representatives of other organizations†‡
† Unable to attend: The World Bank.
‡ Each representative of other organizations signed a statement that he or she agreed not to participate in the review of any other matter under consideration in which there was a real or perceived conflict of interest.
International Paediatric Association (IPA)
Professor T.I. Bhutta, IPA, Lahore, Pakistan
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Dr F. Renaud-Théry, Care and Support Network Adviser, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Ms T. Huong Ha, Technical Officer, Supply Division, UNICEF, Copenhagen, Denmark
Mr M.W. Young, Senior Health Advisor, UNICEF Headquarters, New York, NY, USA
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Dr G. Walker, Specialist in Reproductive Health Commodities, Country Services Team, UNFPA, Bratislava, Slovakia
WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring (Uppsala, Sweden)
Professor C.J. van Boxtel, Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
* Each Temporary Adviser of the Committee signed a statement that he or she agreed not to participate in the review of any other matter under consideration in which there was a real or perceived conflict of interest.
Dr A. Asamoa-Baah, Executive Director, Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
Dr R.C.F. Gray, Medical Officer, Policy, Access and Rational Use, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
Professor U. Gupta, Delhi Society for Promotion of Rational Use Of Drugs, New Delhi, India (Temporary Adviser)
Dr S. Hill, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Waratah, NSW, Australia (Temporary Adviser)
Dr H.V. Hogerzeil, Coordinator, Policy, Access and Rational Use, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland (Secretary)
Dr Y. Li, Chinese Cochrane Centre, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan, China (Temporary Adviser)
Mr D.K. Mehta, Executive Editor, British national formulary, Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London, England (Temporary Adviser)
Dr L. Offerhaus, Bussum, Netherlands (Temporary Adviser)
Mr A. Pillay, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Waratah, NSW, Australia (Temporary Adviser)
Dr J.D. Quick, Director, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
Mr P.J. Wiffen, Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group, The Cochrane Collaboration, Pain Research Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, England (Temporary Adviser)
Professor L.E. Ziganshina, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmaco-therapy, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation (Temporary Adviser)