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WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy: 2002-2005
(2002; 70 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentAcronyms, abbreviations and WHO Regions
Open this folder and view contentsKey points: WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002 - 2005
Open this folder and view contentsChapter One: Global review
Open this folder and view contentsChapter Two: Challenges
Open this folder and view contentsChapter Three: The current role of WHO
Open this folder and view contentsChapter Four: International and national resources for traditional medicine
Open this folder and view contentsChapter Five: Strategy and plan of action 2002 - 2005
View the documentAnnex One: List of WHO Collaborating Centres for Traditional Medicine
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex Two: Selected WHO publications and documents on traditional medicine
View the documentReferences
View the documentBack Cover


1. Pietroni P. Beyond the boundaries: relationship between general practice and complementary medicine. British Medical Journal, 1992, 305:564 - 566.

2. World Health Organization. Promoting the Role of Traditional Medicine in Health Systems: a Strategy for the African Region 2001 - 2010. Harare, World Health Organization, 2000 (document reference AFR/RC50/Doc.9/R).

3. World Health Organization. Traditional Medicine in the African Region. An Initial Situation Analysis (1998 - 1999). Harare, WHO Regional Office for Africa, 2000.

4. World Health Organization. Consultation Meeting on Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine: Harmonizing the Two Approaches. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999 (document reference (WP)TM/ICP/TM/001/RB/98 - RS/99/GE/32(CHN)).

5. World Health Organization. Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines and Therapies. Washington DC, WHO Regional Office for the Americas/Pan American Health Organization (Working group OPS/OMS), 1999.

6. World Health Organization. Report: Technical Briefing on Traditional Medicine. Forty-ninth Regional Committee Meeting, Manila, Philippines, 18 September 1998. Manila, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1998.

7. Fisher P & Ward A. Medicine in Europe: complementary medicine in Europe. British Medical Journal, 1994, 309:107 - 111.

8. Health Canada. Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Health Care. A Collection of Papers Prepared for Health Canada. Ottawa, Health Canada, 2001.

9. G. Domenighetti et al. Usage personnel de pratiques relevant des médecines douces ou alternatives parmi les médecins suisses. Médecine & Hygiène, 2000, 58:2291.

10. Zollman C & Vickers AJ. ABC of Complementary Medicine. London, BMJ Books, 2000 (reprinted from a series of articles that appeared in the British Medical Journal during 1999).

11. World Federation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Societies. The Distribution of WFAS Member Societies and Executive Members in Each Continent. Beijing, World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies, 2000.

12. World Health Organization. The Legal Status of Traditional and Complementary/Alternative Medicine: a Worldwide Review. Geneva, World Health Organization, in press.

13. Eisenberg DM et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990 - 1997: results of a follow-up national survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998, 280(18): 1569 - 75.

14. Sermeus G. Alternative health care in Belgium: an explanation of various social aspects. In: Lewith G & Aldridge D, eds. Complementary Medicine and the European Community. Saffron Walden, CW Daniel, 1991. Quoted in reference 7.

15. Marthiessen P, Rosslenbroich B & Schmidt St. Unkonventionelle Medizinische Richtungen - Bestandaufnahme zur Froschungssituation. Bonn, Wirtschaftverlag, NW, 1992. (Materialen zur Gesundheitsforschung, Band 21.) Quoted in reference 7.

16. House of Lords, United Kingdom. Select Committee on Science and Technology. Session 1999 - 2000. 6th Report. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. London, Stationery Office, 2000 (HL Paper 123).

17. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Systems and National Experiences for Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices. Background Note by the UNCTAD Secretariat. Geneva, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2000 (document reference TD/B/COM.1/EM.13/2).

18. Data from Information Resources, Inc. Scanner Data, quoted in Herbal Gram, Journal of the American Botanical Council and the Herb Research Association, 1998, 43:61.

19. Mhame P. The Role of Traditional Knowledge (TK) in the National Economy: the Importance and Scope of TK, Particularly Traditional Medicine in Tanzania. Paper presented at UNCTAD Expert Meeting on Systems and National Experiences for Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices, 30 October - 1 November 2000, Geneva.

20. Quoted in: Spry-Leverton J. West Africa's traditional healers promote the new magic of immunization. UNICEF Information Feature, October 2000. At: http://www.unicef.org/features/feat164.htm.

21. Vongo R. Local production and dispensing of herbal antimalarials. A report from the First International Meeting of the Research Initiative on Traditional Anti-malarials (RITAM), Moshi, Tanzania, 8 - 11 December 1999.

22. Gyapong M et al. Report on Pre-testing of Instruments of Roll Back Malaria Needs Assessment in the Dangme West District, Ghana. 10 January 1999.

23. Diarra D et al. Roll Back Malaria. Needs Assessment Report. Field Test of Instruments and Methodology in Mali. 2 - 28 January 1999.

24. Brieger W et al. Roll Back Malaria. Pre-testing of Needs Assessment Procedures. IDO Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. 13 November - 4 December 1998.

25. RBM Country Team. The Final RBM Report on the Pre-testing of the RBM (WHO) Research Instruments, and the Situation Analysis for Action Against Malaria in Petauke District, Zambia. 21 December 1998 - 20 January 1999.

26. Ahorlu CK. Malaria-related beliefs and behaviour in southern Ghana: implications for treatment, prevention and control. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 1997, 2(5):488 - 499.

27. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2000. Health Systems: Improving Performance. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000.

28. Personal communication from Manuel Vásquez, Rescate Ancestral Indígena Salvadoreño, March 2001.

29. Green E. Indigenous Theories of Contagious Disease. Walnut Creek, California, Alta Mira Press, 1999.

30. UNAIDS. Collaboration with Traditional Healers in AIDS Prevention and Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Comparative Case Study Using UNAIDS Best Practice Criteria. Geneva, UNAIDS, 1999.

31. Burford G et al. Traditional Medicine & HIV/AIDS in Africa. A Report from the International Conference on Medicinal Plants, Traditional Medicine and Local Communities in Africa. A Parallel Session to the Fifth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Nairobi, Kenya, 16 - 19 May 2000. 3 July 2000.

32. Jonas WB. Alternative medicine - learning from the past, examining the present, advancing to the future. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998, 280(18):1616 - 1618.

33. Astin JA. Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national study [letter]. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998, 280(19):1548 - 53.

34. Mason F. The Complementary Treatment Project's Treatment Survey. Toronto, 1995.

35. Anderson W et al. Patient use and assessment of conventional and alternative therapies for HIV infection and AIDS. AIDS, 1993, 7:561 - 566.

36. Ostrow MJ et al. Determinants of complementary therapy use in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral or anti-opportunistic agents. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1997, 15:115 - 120.

37. Chez AR & Jonas WB. The challenge of complementary and alternative medicine. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1997, 177:1556 - 1561.

38. Studdert DM et al. Medical malpractice implications of alternative medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998, 280:1569 - 1575.

39. Reported by World Federation of Chiropractic, 2000.

40. Reported by World Chiropractic Alliance, 2000.

41. World Health Organization. Regulatory Situation of Herbal Medicines. A Worldwide Review. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998 (document reference WHO/TRM/98.1).

42. Norges Offentlige Utredninger [Norway Official Reports]. NOU 1998:21. Ultredning fra et utvalg oppnevnt av Sosial - og helsedepartementet Avgitt til Sosial - og helsedepartementet [Report of a committee, appointed by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, to the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs]. Alternativ Medisin [Alternative Medicine]. 1998.

43. Vickers A. Complementary medicine. Recent advances. Clinical review. British Medical Journal, 2000, 321:683 - 686.

44. Bhattcharya B. M.D. programs in the United States with complementary and alternative medicine education opportunities: an ongoing listing. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 2000, 6:77 - 90.

45. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Expanding Horizons of Healthcare. Five-year Strategic Plan 2001 - 2005. Maryland, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2000.

46. Council of Europe. Resolution 1206 (1999). A European approach to non-conventional medicines. (Extract from the Official Gazette of the Council of Europe - November 1999) (document reference 8435). Parliamentary Assembly. 4 November 1999.

47. World Health Organization. Regional Consultation on Development of Traditional Medicine in South-East Asia Region, 1999. New Delhi, WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, 1999 (document reference SEA/Trad.Med./80).

48. World Health Organization. Report of the Inter-Regional Workshop on Intellectual Property Rights in the Context of Traditional Medicine. Bangkok, Thailand, 6 - 8 December 2000. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2001.1)

49. World Health Organization. General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1).

50. European Commission. COST Action B4: Unconventional Medicine. Final Report of the Management Committee, 1993 - 98. Brussels, European Commission, 1998 (document reference EUR 18420 EN).

51. EsSalud/Organización Panamericana de Salud. Estudio Costo-Efectividad: Programa Nacional de Medicina Complementaria. Seguro Social de EsSalud (Study of Cost-Effectiveness: National Program in Complementary Medicine. Social Security of EsSalud). Lima, EsSalud/Organización Panamericana de Salud (Pan American Health Organization), 2000.

52. World Health Organization. Counterfeit and Substandard drugs in Myanmar and Vietnam. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999 (document reference WHO/EDM/QSM/99.3).

53. Speech of WHO Director-General Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland at the opening of the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health, Paris, 8 November 2000. Accessible at: http://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/2000/20001108_paris.html.

54. Berthold HK, Sudhop MD & Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. Journal of American Medical Association, 1998, 279:1900 - 1902.

55. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P & ter Riet G. Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors. A review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on commercially available preparations. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1989, 28: 535 - 544.

56. Nortier JL et al. Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi). New England Journal of Medicine, 2000, 342(23):1686 - 1692. Quoted in reference 45.

57. Piscitelli SC et al. Indinavir concentrations and St John's wort. The Lancet, 2000, 355(9203): 547 - 548. Quoted in reference 45.

58. World Health Organization. Regional Meeting on Regulatory Aspects of Herbal Products. November 13 - 16, 2000, Final Report, Washington, DC. Washington, DC, WHO Regional Office for the Americas/Pan American Health Organization, 2000.

59. World Health Organization. The Work of WHO in the Western Pacific Region. Report of the Regional Director, 1 July 2001 - 31 June 2001. Manila, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2001.

60. World Health Organization. Policy and Budget for One WHO. Geneva, World Health Organization (document reference PPB/2002 - 2003).

61. World Health Organization. Traditional Medicine. Regional Committee for the WHO Western Pacific Region. Fifty-second Session, Brunei Darussalam, 10 - 14 September 2001. Provisional Agenda Item 13. Manila, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2001 (document reference WPR/RC52/7).

Contacts in Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy

At WHO Headquarters:

Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy
Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals Cluster
WHO Headquarters
Avenue Appia 20
1211 Geneva 27

Dr Jonathan Quick
Tel: +41 22 791 4443 Email: quickj@who.int

Dr Hans Hogerzeil
Team Coordinator, Policy, Access and Rational Use
Tel: +41 22 791 3528 Email: hogerzeilh@who.int

Dr Lembit Rägo
Team Coordinator, Quality and Safety: Medicines
Tel: +41 22 791 4420 Email: ragol@who.int

Dr Germán Velásquez
Team Coordinator, Drug Action Programme
Tel: +41 22 791 3509 Email: velasquezg@who.int

Dr Xiaorui Zhang
Acting Team Coordinator, Traditional Medicine
Tel: +41 22 791 3639 Email: zhangx@who.int

Contacts in WHO Regional Offices:

Regional Office for Africa
World Health Organization
Medical School, C Ward
Parirenyatwa Hospital
Mazoe Street
PO Box BE 773

Dr Jean Marie Trapsida
Acting Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy Coordinator
Tel: +263 4 742 829 Email: janspex@intnet.me

Dr Ossy Kasilo
Traditional Medicines Adviser
Tel: +263 4 790 233 Email: kasiloo@whoafr.org

Regional Office for the Americas
World Health Organization
Pan American Sanitary Bureau
525, 23rd Street NW
Washington, DC 20037:

Dr Caridad Borras
Programme Coordinator, Essential Drugs and Health Care Technology
Tel: +1 202 974 3238 Email: borrasca@paho.org

Dr Rosario D'Alessio
Regional Adviser, Pharmaceuticals
Tel: +1 202 974 3282 Email: dalessir@paho.org

Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
World Health Organization
WHO Post Office
Abdul Razzak Al Sanhouri Street,
opposite children's Library
Nasr City
Cairo 11 371

Mr Peter Graaff
Regional Adviser, Pharmaceuticals
Tel: +20 2 2765301 Email: graaffp@emro.who.int

Regional Office for Europe
World Health Organization
Regional Office for Europe
8, Scherfigsvej DK-2100

Mr Kees de Joncheere
Regional Adviser, Pharmaceuticals
Tel: +45 3 917 1717 Email: cjo@who.dk

Regional Office for South-East Asia
World Health Organization
World Health House
Indraprastha Estate
Mahatma Gandhi Road
New Delhi 110002

Dr Krisantha Weerasuriya
Acting Regional Adviser, Pharmaceuticals
Tel: +91 11 331 7804 Email: weerasuriyak@whosea.org

Regional Office for the Western Pacific
World Health Organization
PO Box 2932
Manila 1000

Dr Budiono Santoso
Regional Adviser, Pharmaceuticals
Tel: +63 2 528 8001 Email: santosob@who.org.ph

Dr Chen Ken
Traditional Medicines Adviser
Tel: +63 2 528 9948 Email: chenk@who.org.ph


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