Affordable prices are an important prerequisite for ensuring access to essential drugs in the public and private sectors.
• government commitment to ensuring access through increased affordability;
• for all drugs: reduction of drug taxes, tariffs and distribution margins; pricing policy;
• for multi-source products: promotion of competition through generic policies, generic substitution and good procurement practices;
• for single-source products: price negotiations, competition through price information and therapeutic substitution, and TRIPS-compliant measures such as compulsory licensing, “early workings” of patented drugs for generic manufacturers, and parallel imports.