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Globalization, TRIPS and Access to Pharmaceuticals - WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicines, No. 003, March 2001
(2001; 6 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentA new era in global trade
View the documentKey requirements of the TRIPS Agreement
View the documentPublic health and TRIPS
View the documentEvaluating impacts of trade agreements
View the documentWHO perspectives on access to drugs
View the documentFurther reading
View the documentContacts at WHO Headquarters:

Further reading

Bermudez JAZ et al. The WTO TRIPS Agreement and Patent Protection in Brazil: Recent Changes and Implications for Local Production and Access to Medicines. Rio de Janeiro, World Health Organization/PAHO Collaborating Center for Pharmaceutical Polices, National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, 2000.

Boulet P & Forte G-B. Mission conjointe MSF OMS ONUSIDA. Cameroun 6-10 février 2000. Revue de la Politique pharmaceutique au Cameroun. Les Brevets de Médicaments dans les Pays d’Afrique francophone. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000.

Correa C. Integrating Public Health Concerns into Patent Legislation in Developing Countries. Geneva, South Centre, 2000. See: http://www.southcentre.org/publications/ public health/toc.htm

European Commission (PL Kolker). TRIPS Agreement. Patent Protection. Luxembourg, European Commission, Directorate-General for Trade, 2000.

International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations. The Question of Patents. Geneva, International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations, 1998.

Pécoul B et al. Access to essential drugs in poor countries. A lost battle? Special communication. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999, 281(4):361-367. See: http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v281n4/rfull/jsc80337.html

Rowson M. World Trade Organization: Implications for Health Policy. London, Medact, 2000. See: http://www.medact.org/wto.html

South Centre. Intellectual Property Rights and the Use of Compulsory Licenses: Options for Developing Countries. Trade-Related Agenda, Development and Equity (T.R.A.D.E.).Working Paper N° 5. Geneva, South Centre, October 1999.

Supakankunti S et al. Study of the Implications of the WTO TRIPS Agreement for the Pharmaceutical Industry in Thailand. Bangkok, WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Economics, Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, 1999.

Trouiller P. & Olliaro P. Drug development output from 1975 to 1996: What proportion for tropical diseases? International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1999, 2: 61-63.

UNAIDS/World Health Organization. Patent Situation of HIV/AIDS-related Drugs in 80 Countries. Geneva, UNAIDS/World Health Organization, January 2000. See: http://www.unaids.org/acc_ access/access_drugs/index.html

Velásquez G, Boulet P. Globalization and Access to Drugs: Perspectives on the WTO/TRIPS Agreement. (Revised). Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999 (document reference WHO/DAP/98.9). See: http://www.who.int/ medicines/

World Health Organization. Health Reform and Drug Financing. Selected Topics. Health Economics and Drugs. DAP Series No. 6 (document reference WHO/DAP/98.9). See: http://www.who.int/medicines/

World Health Organization. Revised Drug Strategy. WHO’s Work in Pharmaceuticals and Essential Drugs. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998 (document reference EB/RDS/RD/1).

World Health Organization. A Briefing on TRIPS. Pharmaceuticals in the Trade-Related Aspects of the Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Manila, World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, August 2000.

World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2000. Health Systems: Improving Performance. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000. See http://www.who.int/whr/

World Health Organization/Directorate General of Drug and Food Control, Indonesia. The TRIPS Agreement and Pharmaceuticals. Report of an ASEAN Workshop on the TRIPS Agreement and its Impact on Pharmaceuticals, Jakarta, 2-4 May 2000. Jakarta, World Health Organization/Directorate General of Drug and Food Control. See: http://www.who.or.id/currentevent/Drugs/Trips%20Agreement.pdf

World Intellectual Property Organization. Agreement Between the World Intellectual Property Organization and the World Trade Organization (1995). Geneva, World Intellectual Property Organization, 1995. See: http://www.wipo.int/treaties/general/wto.pdf

World Intellectual Property Organization. Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) (1994). Geneva, World Intellectual Property Organization, 1997. See: http://www.wto.org/wto/english/tratop_e/trips_e/t_agm0_e.htm

World Trade Organization. Introduction to the WTO. Trading into the Future. Geneva, World Trade Organization, 1998. See http://www.-wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/tif_e.htm


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