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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines - 12th List, April 2002
(2002; 28 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentPromoting rational use
View the documentWHO Model List (Revised April 2002). Core List
View the documentWHO Model List (Revised April 2002). Complementary List
 

WHO Model List (Revised April 2002). Core List

Explanatory Notes

The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions. Priority conditions are selected on the basis of current and estimated future public health relevance, and potential for safe and cost-effective treatment.

When the strength of a drug is specified in terms of a selected salt or ester, this is mentioned in brackets; when it refers to the active moiety, the name of the salt or ester in brackets is preceded by the word “as”. Many drugs included in the list are preceded by a box (...) to indicate that they represent an example of a therapeutic group and that various drugs could serve as alternatives. It is imperative that this is understood when drugs are selected at national level, since choice is then influenced by the comparative cost and availability of equivalent products. Examples of acceptable substitutions include:

* Hydrochlorothiazide: any other thiazide-type diuretic currently in broad clinical use.
* Hydralazine: any other peripheral vasodilator having an antihypertensive effect.
* Senna: any stimulant laxative (either synthetic or of plant origin).

Numbers in parentheses following drug names indicate:

(1) Drugs subject to international control under: (a) the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961); (b) the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971); or (c) the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988).

(2) Specific expertise, diagnostic precision, individualization of dosage or special equipment required for proper use.

(3) Greater potency or efficacy.

(4) In renal insufficiency, contraindicated or dosage adjustments necessary.

(5) To improve compliance.

(6) Special pharmacokinetic properties.

(7) Adverse effects diminish benefit/risk ratio.

(8) Limited indications or narrow spectrum of activity.

(9) For epidural anaesthesia.

(10) Sustained-release preparations are available. A proposal to include such a product in a national list of essential drugs should be supported by adequate documentation.

(11) Monitoring of therapeutic concentrations in plasma can improve safety and efficacy.

Drugs are listed in alphabetical order.

Section 1: Anaesthetics

1.1 GENERAL ANAESTHETICS AND OXYGEN

ether, anaesthetic (1c) (2)

inhalation

halothane (2)

inhalation

ketamine (2)

injection, 50 mg (as hydro-

 

chloride)/ml in 10-ml vial

nitrous oxide (2)

inhalation

oxygen

inhalation (medicinal gas)

*thiopental (2)

powder for injection, 0.5 g, 1.0 g

 

(sodium salt) in ampoule

 

1.2 LOCAL ANAESTHETICS

*bupivacaine (2, 9)

injection, 0.25%, 0.5%

 

(hydrochloride) in vial

 

injection for spinal anaesthesia,

 

0.5% (hydrochloride) in 4-ml ampoule

 

to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution

*lidocaine

injection, 1%, 2%

 

(hydrochloride) in vial

 

injection for spinal anaesthesia,

 

5% (hydrochloride) in 2-ml ampoule

 

to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution

 

topical forms, 2-4% (hydrochloride)

*lidocaine + epinephrine

injection, 1%, 2% (hydrochloride)

(adrenaline)

+ epinephrine 1:200 000 in vial

 

dental cartridge, 2% (hydrochloride)

 

+ epinephrine 1:80 000

 

1.3 PREOPERATIVE MEDICATION & SEDATION
FOR SHORT-TERM PROCEDURES

atropine

injection, 1 mg (sulfate)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

chloral hydrate

syrup, 200 mg/5 ml

*diazepam (1b)

injection, 5 mg/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

 

tablet, 5 mg

*morphine (1a)

injection, 10 mg (sulfate or

 

hydrochloride) in 1-ml ampoule

*promethazine

elixir or syrup, 5 mg

 

(hydrochloride)/5 ml

Section 2: Analgesics, Antipyretics,
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory
Drugs (NSAIDs), Medicines Used to
Treat Gout and Disease-Modifying
Agents used in Rheumatic
Disorders (DMARDs)

2.1 NON-OPIOID ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS & NSAIDs

acetylsalicylic acid

tablet, 100-500 mg

 

suppository, 50-150 mg

*ibuprofen

tablet, 200 mg, 400 mg

paracetamol

tablet, 100-500 mg

 

suppository, 100 mg

 

syrup, 125 mg/5 ml

   

2.2 OPIOID ANALGESICS

*codeine (1a)

tablet, 30 mg (phosphate)

*morphine (1a)

injection, 10 mg (hydrochloride

 

or sulfate) in 1-ml ampoule

 

oral solution, 10 mg (hydrochloride

 

or sulfate))/5 ml

 

tablet, 10 mg (sulfate)

 

2.3 MEDICINES USED TO TREAT GOUT

allopurinol (4)

tablet, 100 mg

colchicine (7)

tablet, 500 µg

 

2.4 DISEASE-MODIFYING AGENTS USED
IN RHEUMATIC DISORDERS (DMARDS)

azathioprine (2)

tablet, 50 mg

chloroquine (2)

tablet, 100 mg, 150 mg

 

(as phosphate or sulfate)

cyclophosphamide (2)

tablet, 25 mg

methotrexate (2)

tablet, 2.5 mg (as sodium salt)

penicillamine (2)

capsule or tablet, 250 mg

sulfasalazine (2)

tablet, 500 mg

Section 3: Antiallergics and Medicines used in Anaphylaxis

*chlorphenamine

tablet, 4 mg (hydrogen maleate)

 

injection, 10 mg (hydrogen

 

maleate) in 1-ml ampoule

*dexamethasone

tablet, 500 µg, 4 mg

 

injection, 4 mg

 

dexamethasone phosphate

 

(as disodium salt) in 1-ml ampoule

epinephrine (adrenaline)

injection, 1 mg (as hydrochloride

 

or hydrogen tartrate) in 1-ml ampoule

hydrocortisone

powder for injection, 100 mg

 

(as sodium succinate) in vial

*prednisolone

tablet, 5 mg

Section 4: Antidotes and Other
Substances Used in Poisonings

4.1 NON-SPECIFIC

*charcoal, activated

powder

ipecacuanha

syrup, containing 0.14% ipecacuanha

 

alkaloids calculated as emetine

 

4.2 SPECIFIC

acetylcysteine

injection, 200 mg/ml

 

in 10-ml ampoule

atropine

injection, 1 mg (sulfate)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

calcium gluconate (2, 8)

injection, 100 mg/ml

 

in 10-ml ampoule

deferoxamine

powder for injection, 500 mg

 

(mesilate) in vial

dimercaprol (2)

injection in oil, 50 mg/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

*DL-methionine

tablet, 250 mg

methylthioninium chloride

injection, 10 mg/ml

 

(methylene blue)

in 10-ml ampoule

naloxone

injection, 400 µg (hydrochloride)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

penicillamine (2)

capsule or tablet, 250 mg

potassium ferric hexacyano-

powder for oral

 

ferrate(II) ·2H2O (Prussian blue)

administration

sodium calcium edetate (2)

injection, 200 mg/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

sodium nitrite

injection, 30 mg/ml

 

in 10-ml ampoule

sodium thiosulfate

injection, 250 mg/ml

 

in 50-ml ampoule

Section 5: Anticonvulsants/Antiepileptics

carbamazepine (10, 11)

scored tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg

*diazepam (1b)

injection, 5 mg/ml in 2-ml

 

ampoule (intravenous or rectal)

ethosuximide

capsule, 250 mg

 

syrup, 250 mg/5 ml

magnesium sulfate

injection, 500 mg/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule,

 

500 mg/ml in 10-ml ampoule

phenobarbital (1b, 11)

tablet, 15-100 mg

 

elixir, 15 mg/5 ml

phenytoin (7, 11)

capsule or tablet,

 

25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg (sodium salt)

 

injection, 50 mg

 

(sodium salt)/ml in 5-ml vial

valproic acid (7, 11)

enteric coated tablet,

 

200 mg, 500 mg (sodium salt)

Section 6: Anti-infective Medicines

6.1 ANTHELMINTHICS

6.1.1 INTESTINAL ANTHELMINTHICS

albendazole

chewable tablet, 400 mg

levamisole

tablet, 50 mg, 150 mg

 

(as hydrochloride)

*mebendazole

chewable tablet, 100 mg, 500 mg

niclosamide

chewable tablet, 500 mg

praziquantel

tablet, 150 mg, 600 mg

pyrantel

chewable tablet, 250 mg

 

(as embonate)

 

oral suspension, 50 mg

 

(as embonate)/ml

 

6.1.2 ANTIFILARIALS

diethylcarbamazine

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

 

(dihydrogen citrate)

ivermectin

scored tablet, 3 mg, 6 mg

 

6.1.3 ANTISCHISTOSOMALS AND OTHER
ANTITREMATODE MEDICINES

praziquantel

tablet, 600 mg

triclabendazole

tablet, 250 mg

 

6.2 ANTIBACTERIALS

6.2.1 BETA LACTAM MEDICINES

*amoxicillin

capsule or tablet, 250 mg,

 

500 mg (anhydrous)

 

powder for oral suspension,

 

125 mg (anhydrous)/5 ml

ampicillin

powder for injection, 500 mg,

 

1 g (as sodium salt) in vial

benzathine

powder for injection,

 

benzyl penicillin

1.44 g benzylpenicillin

 

(= 2.4 million IU) in 5-ml vial

benzyl penicillin

powder for injection,

 

600 mg (= 1 million IU),

 

3 g (= 5 million IU)

 

(sodium or potassium salt) in vial

*cloxacillin

capsule, 500 mg, 1 g (as sodium salt)

 

powder for oral solution, 125 mg

 

(as sodium salt)/5 ml

 

powder for injection, 500 mg

 

(as sodium salt) in vial

phenoxymethylpenicillin

tablet, 250 mg

 

(as potassium salt)

 

powder for oral suspension, 250 mg

 

(as potassium salt)/5 ml

procaine benzylpenicillin

powder for injection,

 

1 g (= 1 million IU),

 

3 g (= 3 million IU) in vial

 

6.2.2 OTHER ANTIBACTERIALS

*chloramphenicol (7)

capsule, 250 mg

 

oral suspension, 150 mg

 

(as palmitate)/5 ml

 

powder for injection, 1 g

 

(sodium succinate) in vial

*ciprofloxacin

tablet, 250 mg

 

(as hydrochloride)

*doxycycline (5, 6)

capsule or tablet,

 

100 mg (hydrochloride)

*erythromycin

capsule or tablet, 250 mg

 

(as stearate or ethyl succinate)

 

powder for oral suspension, 125 mg

 

(as stearate or ethyl succinate)

 

powder for injection, 500 mg

 

(as lactobionate) in vial

*gentamicin (2, 4, 7, 11)

injection, 10 mg, 40 mg

 

(as sulfate)/ml in 2-ml vial

*metronidazole

tablet, 200-500 mg

 

injection, 500 mg in 100-ml vial

 

suppository, 500 mg, 1 g

 

oral suspension, 200 mg

 

(as benzoate)/5 ml

nalidixic acid (8)

tablet, 250 mg, 500 mg

nitrofurantoin (4, 8)

tablet, 100 mg

spectinomycin (8)

powder for injection, 2 g

 

(as hydrochloride) in vial

*sulfadiazine (4)

tablet, 500 mg

 

injection, 250 mg (sodium salt)

 

in 4-ml ampoule

*sulfamethoxazole +

tablet, 100 mg + 20 mg,

 

trimethoprim (4)

400 mg + 80 mg

 

oral suspension,

 

200 mg + 40 mg/5 ml

 

injection, 80 mg + 16 mg/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule,

 

80 mg + 16 mg/ml in 10-ml ampoule

trimethoprim (8)

tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg

 

injection, 20 mg/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

 

6.2.3 ANTILEPROSY MEDICINES

clofazimine

capsule, 50 mg, 100 mg

dapsone

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg

rifampicin

capsule or tablet, 150 mg, 300 mg

 

6.2.4 ANTITUBERCULOSIS MEDICINES

ethambutol (4)

tablet, 100-400 mg (hydrochloride)

isoniazid

tablet, 100-300 mg

isoniazid + ethambutol (5)

tablet, 150 mg + 400 mg

pyrazinamide

tablet, 400 mg

rifampicin

capsule or tablet, 150 mg, 300 mg

rifampicin +

tablet, 60 mg + 30 mg, 150 mg + 75 mg,

 

isoniazid (5)

300 mg + 150 mg

 

60 mg + 60 mg*, 150 mg + 150 mg*

 

(*for intermittent use 3 times weekly)

rifampicin + isoniazid +

tablet, 60 mg + 30 mg + 150 mg,

 

pyrazinamide (5)

150 mg + 75 mg + 400 mg

 

150 mg + 150 mg + 500 mg*

 

(*for intermittent use 3 times weekly)

rifampicin + isoniazid +

tablet, 150 mg + 75 mg +

 

pyrazinamide + ethambutol

400 mg + 275 mg

streptomycin (4)

powder for injection,

 

1 g (as sulfate) in vial

 

6.3 ANTIFUNGAL MEDICINES

amphotericin B (4)

powder for injection, 50 mg in vial

*fluconazole

capsule, 50 mg

 

injection, 2 mg/ml in vial

 

oral suspension, 50 mg/5-ml

griseofulvin (7)

capsule or tablet, 125 mg, 250 mg

nystatin

tablet, 100 000, 500 000 IU

 

lozenge, 100000 IU

 

pessary, 100 000 IU

 

6.4 ANTIVIRAL MEDICINES

6.4.1 ANTIHERPES MEDICINES

aciclovir (8)

tablet, 200 mg

 

powder for injection, 250 mg

 

(as sodium salt) in vial

 

6.4.2 ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES

 

Adequate resources and specialist oversight are a prerequisite for the introduction of this class of drugs.

The antiretroviral drugs do not cure the HIV infection, they only temporarily suppress viral replication and improve symptoms. They have various adverse effects and patients receiving these drugs require careful monitoring by adequately trained health professionals. For these reasons, continued rigorous promotion of measures to prevent new infections is essential and the need for this has not been diminished in any way by the addition of antiretroviral drugs to the Model List. Adequate resources and trained health professionals are a prerequisite for the introduction of this class of drugs. Effective therapy requires commencement of three or four drugs simultaneously, and alternative regimens are necessary to meet specific requirements at start-up, to substitute for first-line regimens in the case of toxicity, or to replace failing regimens. The Committee strongly recommends the use of three- or four-drug combinations as specifically recommended in the WHO treatment guidelines. The use of fixed dose preparations for these combinations is also recommended, with assured pharmaceutical quality and interchangeability with the single products as approved by the relevant drug regulatory authority.

 

6.4.2.1 NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE
INHIBITORS

abacavir (ABC)

tablet, 300 mg (as sulfate)

 

oral solution, 100 mg/5 ml

didanosine (ddl)

buffered chewable, dispersible tablets

 

25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg

 

buffered powder for oral solution

 

100 mg, 167 mg, 250 mg packets

 

unbuffered enteric coated capsule

 

125 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg, 400 mg

lamivudine (3TC)

tablet, 150 mg

 

oral solution, 50 mg/5 ml

stavudine (d4T)

capsule, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg

 

powder for oral solution, 5 mg/5 ml

zidovudine (ZDV or AZT)

tablet, 300 mg

 

capsule, 100 mg, 250 mg

 

oral solution or syrup, 50 mg/5 ml

 

solution for IV infusion,

 

injection 10 mg/ml in 20-ml vial

 

6.4.2.2 NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE
TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS

efavirenz (EFV or EFZ)

capsule, 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg

 

oral solution, 150 mg/5 ml

nevirapine (NVP)

tablet, 200 mg

 

oral suspension, 50 mg/5-ml

 

6.4.2.3 PROTEASE INHIBITORS

 

Selection of two or three protease inhibitors from the Model List will need to be determined by each country after consideration of local treatment guidelines and experience, as well as the comparative costs of available products. Ritonavir is recommended for use in combination with indinavir, lopinavir and saquinavir as a booster, and not as a drug in its own right.

indinavir (IDV)

capsule,

 

200 mg, 333 mg, 400 mg (as sulfate)

ritonavir (r)

capsule, 100 mg

 

oral solution, 400 mg/5 ml

lopinavir + ritonavir (LPV/r)

capsule, 133.3 mg + 33.3 mg

 

oral solution, 400 mg

 

+100 mg/5 ml

nelfinavir (NFV)

tablet, 250 mg (as mesilate)

 

oral powder, 50 mg/g

saquinavir (SQV)

capsule, 200 mg

 

6.5 ANTIPROTOZOAL MEDICINES

6.5.1 ANTIAMOEBIC AND ANTIGIARDIASIS MEDICINES

*diloxanide

tablet, 500 mg (furoate)

*metronidazole

tablet, 200-500 mg

 

injection, 500 mg in 100-ml vial

 

oral suspension, 200 mg

 

(as benzoate)/5 ml

 

6.5.2 ANTILEISHMANIASIS MEDICINES

*meglumine antimoniate

injection, 30%, equivalent to approx.

 

8.1% antimony, in 5-ml ampoule

pentamidine (5)

powder for injection, 200 mg,

 

300 mg (isetionate) in vial

 

6.5.3 ANTIMALARIAL MEDICINES

6.5.3.1 FOR CURATIVE TREATMENT

*artemether + lumefantrine

tablet, 20 mg + 120 mg

*chloroquine

tablet, 100 mg, 150 mg

 

(as phosphate or sulfate)

 

syrup, 50 mg

 

(as phosphate or sulfate)/5 ml

 

injection, 40 mg (as hydrochloride,

 

phosphate or sulfate)/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

primaquine

tablet, 7.5 mg, 15 mg

 

(as diphosphate)

*quinine

tablet, 300 mg (as bisulfate or sulfate)

 

injection, 300 mg (as dihydrochloride)/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

 

6.5.3.2 FOR PROPHYLAXIS

chloroquine

tablet, 150 mg

 

(as phosphate or sulfate)

 

syrup, 50 mg (as phosphate

 

or sulfate)/5 ml

doxycycline

capsule or tablet,

 

100 mg (hydrochloride)

mefloquine

tablet, 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

proguanil (for use only in

tablet, 100 mg

combination with chloroquine)

(hydrochloride)

 

6.5.4 ANTIPNEUMOCYSTOSIS AND
ANTITOXOPLASMOSIS MEDICINES

pentamidine (2)

tablet, 200 mg, 300 mg

pyrimethamine

tablet, 25 mg

sulfamethoxazole +

injection, 80 mg + 16 mg/ml

 

trimethoprim

in 5-ml ampoule

 

80 mg + 16 mg/ml

 

in 10-ml ampoule

 

6.5.5 ANTITRYPANOSOMAL MEDICINES

 

(a) AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS

melarsoprol (2)

injection, 3.6% solution

pentamidine (2)

powder for injection, 200 mg,

 

300 mg (isetionate) in vial

suramin sodium

powder for injection, 1 g in vial

 

(b) AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS

benznidazole (7)

tablet, 100 mg

nifurtimox (2, 8)

tablet, 30 mg, 120 mg, 250 mg

 

6.6 INSECT REPELLENTS

diethyltoluamide

topical solution, 50%, 75%

*Recommended for use in areas with significant drug resistance and not in pregnancy or in children below 10kg.

Section 7: Antimigraine Medicines

7.1 FOR TREATMENT OF ACUTE ATTACK

acetylsalicylic acid

tablet, 300-500 mg

ergotamine (7)

tablet, 1 mg (tartrate)

paracetamol

tablet, 300-500 mg

 

7.2 FOR PROPHYLAXIS

*propranolol

tablet, 20 mg, 40 mg

 

(hydrochloride)

Section 8: Antineoplastic,
Immunosuppressive and Medicines
used in Palliative Care

8.1 IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE MEDICINES

Please see Complementary List

 

8.2 CYTOTOXIC DRUGS

Please see Complementary List

 

8.3 HORMONES AND ANTIHORMONES

Please see Complementary List

 

8.4 DRUGS USED IN PALLIATIVE CARE

Please see Complementary List

Section 9: Antiparkinsonism Medicines

*biperiden

tablet, 2 mg (hydrochloride)

 

injection, 5 mg (lactate)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

levodopa +

tablet, 100 mg + 10 mg,

 

*carbidopa (5, 6)

250 mg + 25 mg

Section 10: Medicines affecting the Blood

10.1 ANTIANAEMIA MEDICINES

ferrous salt

tablet, equivalent to 60 mg iron

 

oral solution, equivalent to

 

25 mg iron (as sulfate)/ml

ferrous salt + folic acid

tablet, equivalent

(nutritional supplement for use

to 60 mg iron +

during pregnancy)

400 µg folic acid

folic acid (2)

tablet, 1 mg, 5 mg

 

injection, 1 mg (as sodium salt)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

hydroxocobalamin (2)

injection, 1 mg

 

in 1-ml ampoule

 

10.2 MEDICINES AFFECTING COAGULATION

desmopressin (8)

injection, 4 µg (acetate)/ml

 

in 1-ml ampoule

 

nasal spray, 10 µg (acetate)/

 

metered dose

heparin sodium

injection, 1000 IU/ml,

 

5000 IU/ml, 20 000 IU/ml

 

in 1-ml ampoule

phytomenadione

injection, 10 mg/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

 

tablet, 10 mg

protamine sulfate

injection, 10 mg/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

*warfarin (2, 6)

tablet, 1 mg, 2 mg, 5 mg

 

(sodium salt)

Section 11: Blood Products and
Plasma Substitutes

11.1 PLASMA SUBSTITUTES

*dextran 70

injectable solution, 6%

*polygeline

injectable solution, 3.5%

 

11.2 PLASMA FRACTIONS FOR SPECIFIC USE

Please see Complementary List

Section 12: Cardiovascular Medicines

12.1 ANTIANGINAL MEDICINES

*atenolol

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

glyceryl trinitrate

tablet (sublingual), 500 µg

*isosorbide dinitrate

tablet (sublingual), 5 mg

*verapamil (10)

tablet, 40 mg, 80 mg

 

(hydrochloride)

 

12.2 ANTIARRHYTHMIC MEDICINES

*atenolol

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

digoxin (4, 11)

tablet, 62.5 µg, 250 µg

 

oral solution, 50 µg/ml

 

injection, 250 µg/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

lidocaine

injection, 20 mg

 

(hydrochloride)/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

verapamil (8, 10)

tablet, 40 mg,

 

80 mg (hydrochloride)

 

injection, 2.5 mg

 

(hydrochloride)/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

 

12.3 ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MEDICINES

*atenolol

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

*captopril

scored tablet, 25 mg

*hydralazine

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg

 

(hydrochloride)

 

powder for injection, 20 mg

 

(hydrochloride) in ampoule

*hydrochlorothiazide

scored tablet, 25 mg

methyldopa (7)

tablet, 250 mg

*nifedipine (10)

sustained-release formulations

 

tablet, 10 mg

*reserpine

tablet, 100 µg, 250 µg

 

injection, 1 mg in 1-ml ampoule

 

12.4 MEDICINES USED IN HEART FAILURE

*captopril

scored tablet, 25 mg

digoxin (4, 11)

tablet, 62.5 µg, 250 µg

 

oral solution, 50 µg/ml

 

injection, 250 µg/ml in 2-ml ampoule

dopamine

injection, 40 mg

 

(hydrochloride)/ml in 5-ml vial

*hydrochlorothiazide

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg

 

12.5 ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICINES

acetylsalicylic acid

tablet, 100 mg

 

12.6 LIPID-LOWERING AGENTS

 

The WHO Expert Committee on Use of Essential Drugs recognizes the value of lipid-lowering drugs in treating patients with hyperlipidaemia. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, often referred to as “statins”, are a family of potent and effective lipid-lowering drugs with a good tolerability profile. Several of these drugs have been shown to reduce the incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality (all causes), as well as the need for coronary by-pass surgery. All remain very costly but may be cost effective for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as for primary prevention in some very high-risk patients. Since no single drug has been shown to be significantly more effective or less expensive than others in the group, none is included in the Model List; the choice of drug for use in patients at highest risk should be decided at the national level.

Section 13:
Dermatological Medicines (topical)

13.1 ANTIFUNGAL MEDICINES

benzoic acid + salicylic acid

ointment or

 

cream, 6% + 3%

*miconazole

ointment or cream, 2% (nitrate)

sodium thiosulfate

solution, 15%

 

13.2 ANTI-INFECTIVE MEDICINES

*methylrosanilinium chloride

aqueous solution, 0.5%

 

(gentian violet)

tincture, 0.5%

neomycin + *bacitracin (7)

ointment, 5 mg

 

neomycin sulfate

 

+ 500 IU bacitracin zinc/g

potassium permanganate

aqueous solution, 1:10 000

silver sulfadiazine

cream, 1 %, in 500-g container

 

13.3 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND
ANTIPRURITIC MEDICINES

*betamethasone (3)

ointment or cream,

 

0.1% (as valerate)

*calamine lotion

lotion

*hydrocortisone

ointment or cream, 1% (acetate)

 

13.4 ASTRINGENT MEDICINES

aluminium diacetate

solution, 13% for dilution

 

13.5 MEDICINES AFFECTING SKIN
DIFFERENTIATION AND PROLIFERATION

benzoyl peroxide

lotion or cream, 5%

coal tar

solution, 5%

dithranol

ointment, 0.1-2%

fluorouracil

ointment, 5%

*podophyllum resin (7)

solution, 10-25%

salicylic acid

solution 5%

urea

ointment or cream, 10%

 

13.6 SCABICIDES AND PEDICULICIDES

*benzyl benzoate

lotion, 25%

permethrin

cream, 5%

 

lotion, 1%

 

13.7 ULTRA VIOLET-BLOCKING AGENTS

Please see Complementary List

Section 14: Diagnostic Agents

14.1 OPHTHALMIC MEDICINES

fluorescein

eye drops, 1% (sodium salt)

*tropicamide

eye drops, 0.5%

 

14.2 RADIOCONTRAST MEDIA

*amidotrizoate

injection, 140-420 mg iodine

 

(as sodium or meglumine

 

salt)/ml in 20-ml ampoule

barium sulfate

aqueous suspension

*iohexol

injection, 140-350 mg iodine/ml

 

in 5-ml, 10-ml and 20-ml ampoule

*iopanoic acid

tablet, 500 mg

*propyliodone

oily suspension,

(For administration only into

500-600 mg/ml

the bronchial tree)

in 20-ml ampoule

Section 15:
Disinfectants and Antiseptics

15.1 ANTISEPTICS

*chlorhexidine

solution, 5%

 

(digluconate) for dilution

*ethanol

solution, 70% (denatured)

*polyvidone iodine

solution, 10%

 

15.2 DISINFECTANTS

*chlorine base compound

powder (0.1% available

 

chlorine) for solution

*chloroxylenol

solution, 4.8%

glutaral

solution, 2%

Section 16: Diuretics

*amiloride (4, 7, 8)

tablet, 5 mg (hydrochloride)

*furosemide

tablet, 40 mg

 

injection, 10 mg/ml in

 

2-ml ampoule

*hydrochlorothiazide

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg

spironolactone (8)

tablet, 25 mg

Section 17: Gastrointestinal Medicines

17.1 ANTACIDS AND OTHER ANTIULCER MEDICINES

aluminium hydroxide

tablet, 500 mg

 

oral suspension, 320 mg/5 ml

*cimetidine

tablet, 200 mg

 

injection, 200 mg in 2-ml ampoule

magnesium hydroxide

oral suspension,

 

equivalent to 550 mg

 

magnesium oxide/10 ml

 

17.2 ANTIEMETIC MEDICINES

metoclopramide

tablet, 10 mg (hydrochloride)

 

injection, 5 mg (hydrochloride)/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

*promethazine

tablet, 10 mg,

 

25 mg (hydrochloride)

 

elixir or syrup, 5 mg

 

(hydrochloride)/5 ml

 

injection, 25 mg (hydrochloride)/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

 

17.3 ANTIHAEMORRHOIDAL MEDICINES

*local anaesthetic, astringent

ointment

and anti-inflammatory drug

or suppository

 

17.4 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDICINES

*hydrocortisone (*only applies to

suppository, 25 mg

hydrocortisone retention enema)

(acetate)

*sulfasalazine (2)

tablet, 500 mg

 

suppository, 500 mg

 

retention enema

 

17.5 ANTISPASMODIC MEDICINES

*atropine

tablet, 1 mg (sulfate)

 

injection, 1 mg (sulfate)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

 

17.6 LAXATIVES

*senna

tablet, 7.5 mg (sennosides)

 

(or traditional dosage forms)

 

17.7 MEDICINES USED IN DIARRHOEA

17.7.1 ORAL REHYDRATION

oral rehydration salts (for glucose-

powder, 27.9 g/l

electrolyte solution)

 
 

Components

g/l

 

sodium chloride

3.5

 

trisodium citrate dihydrate*

2.9

 

potassium chloride

1.5

 

glucose

20.0

 

*Trisodium citrate dihydrate may be replaced by sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate) 2.5g/l. However, as the stability of this latter formulation is very poor under tropical conditions, it is only recommended when manufactured for immediate use.

 
 

17.7.2 ANTIDIARRHOEAL (SYMPTOMATIC)
MEDICINES

*codeine (1a)

tablet, 30 mg (phosphate)

Section 18: Hormones, other Endocrine
Medicines and Contraceptives

18.1 ADRENAL HORMONES AND SYNTHETIC SUBSTITUTES

*dexamethasone

tablet, 500 µg. 4 mg

 

injection, 4 mg dexamethasone

 

phosphate (as disodium salt)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

hydrocortisone

powder for injection, 100 mg

 

(as sodium succinate) in vial

*prednisolone

tablet, 1 mg, 5 mg

 

18.2 ANDROGENS

Please see Complementary List

 

18.3 CONTRACEPTIVES

18.3.1 HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES

*ethinylestradiol +

tablet, 30 µg + 150 µg,

 

*levonorgestrel

tablet, 50 µg

 

+ 250 µg (pack of four)

*ethinylestradiol +

tablet, 35 µg + 1.0 mg

 

*norethisterone

 

levonorgestrel

tablet, 0.75 mg (pack of two)

 

18.3.2 INTRAUTERINE DEVICES

copper-containing device

 

18.3.3 BARRIER METHODS

condoms with or without spermicide

 

(nonoxinol)

diaphragms with spermicide

 

(nonoxinol)

 

18.4 ESTROGENS

*ethinylestradiol

tablet, 10 µg, 50 µg

 

18.5 INSULINS AND OTHER ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS

*glibenclamide

tablet, 2.5 mg, 5 mg

insulin injection (soluble)

injection,

 

40 IU/ml in 10-ml vial,

 

100 IU/ml in 10-ml vial

intermediate-acting insulin

injection,

 

40 IU/ml in 10-ml vial,

 

100 IU/ml in 10-ml vial

 

(as compound insulin zinc suspension

 

or isophane insulin)

metformin

tablet, 500 mg (hydrochloride)

 

18.6 OVULATION INDUCERS

*clomifene (2, 8)

tablet, 50 mg (citrate)

 

18.7 PROGESTOGENS

norethisterone

tablet, 5 mg

 

18.8 THYROID HORMONES AND ANTITHYROID MEDICINES

levothyroxine

tablet, 50 µg, 100 µg

 

(sodium salt)

potassium iodide

tablet, 60 mg

*propylthiouracil

tablet, 50 mg

Section 19: Immunologicals

19.1 DIAGNOSTIC AGENTS

 

All tuberculins should comply with the Requirements for Tuberculins (Revised 1985). WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. Thirty-sixth report (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 745, 1987, Annex 1).

   

tuberculin, purified protein

injection

 

derivative (PPD)

 
 

19.2 SERA AND IMMUNOGLOBULINS

 

All plasma fractions should comply with the WHO Requirements for the Collection, Processing and Quality Control of Blood, Blood Components and Plasma Derivatives (Revised 1992). WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization Forty-third report, WHO Technical Report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2.

   

anti-D immunoglobulin

injection, 250 µg in

 

(human)

single-dose vial

*antitetanus immunoglobulin

injection, 500 IU

 

(human)

in vial

antivenom serum

injection

diphtheria antitoxin

injection, 10 000 IU,

 

20 000 IU in vial

immunoglobulin,

injection (intramuscular)

 

human normal (2)

 

immunoglobulin,

injection (intravenous)

 

human normal (2, 8)

 

*rabies immunoglobulin

injection, 150 IU/ml

 

in vial

 

19.3 VACCINES

All vaccines should comply with the WHO Requirements for
Biological Substances.

 

19.3.1 FOR UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION

BCG vaccine

diphtheria vaccine

hepatitis B vaccine

measles vaccine

pertussis vaccine

poliomyelitis vaccine

tetanus vaccine

 

19.3.2 FOR SPECIFIC GROUPS OF INDIVIDUALS

influenza vaccine

meningococcal meningitis vaccine

mumps vaccine

rabies vaccine (inactivated: prepared

in cell culture)

rubella vaccine

typhoid vaccine

yellow fever vaccine

Section 20:
Muscle Relaxants (peripherally acting)
and Cholinesterase Inhibitors

*alcuronium (2)

injection, 5 mg (chloride)/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

*neostigmine

tablet, 15 mg (bromide)

 

injection, 500 µg, 2.5 mg

 

(metilsulfate) in 1-ml ampoule

pyridostigmine (2, 8)

tablet, 60 mg (bromide)

 

injection, 1 mg

 

in 1-ml ampoule

suxamethonium (2)

injection, 50 mg (chloride)/ml

 

in 2-ml ampoule

 

powder for injection

 

(chloride), in vial

Section 21:
Ophthalmological Preparations

21.1 ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS

*gentamicin

solution (eye drops), 0.3%

 

(as sulfate)

*idoxuridine

solution (eye drops), 0.1%

 

eye ointment, 0.2%

silver nitrate

solution (eye drops), 1%

*tetracycline

eye ointment, 1% (hydrochloride)

 

21.2 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS

*prednisolone

solution (eye drops), 0.5%

 

(sodium phosphate)

 

21.3 LOCAL ANAESTHETICS

*tetracaine

solution (eye drops), 0.5%

 

(hydrochloride)

 

21.4 MIOTICS AND ANTIGLAUCOMA MEDICINES

acetazolamide

tablet, 250 mg

*pilocarpine

solution (eye drops), 2%, 4%

 

(hydrochloride or nitrate)

*timolol

solution (eye drops), 0.25%, 0.5%

 

(as maleate)

 

21.5 MYDRIATICS

atropine

solution (eye drops),

 

0.1%, 0.5%, 1% (sulfate)

Section 22:
Oxytocics and Antioxytocics

22.1 OXYTOCICS

*ergometrine

tablet, 200 µg (hydrogen maleate)

 

injection, 200 µg (hydrogen maleate)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

oxytocin

injection, 10 IU in 1-ml ampoule

 

22.2 ANTIOXYTOCICS

*salbutamol (2)

tablet, 4 mg (as sulfate)

 

injection, 50 µg (as sulfate)/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

Section 23: Peritoneal
Dialysis Solution

intraperitoneal dialysis solution

parenteral solution

 

(of appropriate composition)

 

Section 24:
Psychotherapeutic Medicines

24.1 MEDICINES USED IN PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

*chlorpromazine

tablet, 100 mg (hydrochloride)

 

syrup, 25 mg

 

(hydrochloride)/5 ml

 

injection, 25 mg

 

(hydrochloride)/ml in 2-ml ampoule

*fluphenazine (5)

injection, 25 mg

 

(decanoate or enantate)

 

in 1-ml ampoule

*haloperidol

tablet, 2 mg, 5 mg

 

injection, 5 mg in

 

1-ml ampoule

 

24.2 MEDICINES USED IN MOOD DISORDERS

24.2.1 MEDICINES USED IN DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

* amitriptyline

tablet, 25 mg (hydrochloride)

 

24.2.2 MEDICINES USED IN BIPOLAR DISORDERS

carbamazepine (10, 11)

scored tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg

lithium carbonate (2, 4)

capsule or tablet, 300 mg

valproic acid (7, 11)

enteric coated tablet,

 

200 mg, 500 mg (sodium salt)

 

24.3 MEDICINES USED IN GENERALIZED
ANXIETY AND SLEEP DISORDERS

*diazepam (1b)

scored tablet, 2 mg, 5 mg

 

24.4 MEDICINES USED IN OBSESSIVE
COMPULSIVE DISORDERS AND
PANIC ATTACKS

clomipramine

capsules, 10 mg, 25 mg

 

(hydrochloride)

Section 25: Medicines acting on
the Respiratory Tract

25.1 ANTIASTHMATIC MEDICINES

*aminophylline (2)

injection, 25 mg/ml

 

in 10-ml ampoule

*beclometasone

inhalation (aerosol), 50 µg, 250 µg,

 

(dipropionate) per dose

*epinephrine (adrenaline)

injection, 1 mg (as hydrochloride

 

or hydrogen tartrate) in 1-ml ampoule

ipratropium bromide

inhalation (aerosol), 20 µg/metered dose

*salbutamol

tablet, 2 mg, 4 mg (as sulfate)

 

inhalation (aerosol), 100 µg

 

(as sulfate) per dose

 

syrup, 2 mg (as sulfate)/5 ml

 

injection, 50 µg (as sulfate)/ml

 

in 5-ml ampoule

 

respirator solution for use in nebulizers,

 

5 mg (as sulfate)/ml

theophylline (10, 11)

tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg

 

25.2 ANTITUSSIVES

*dextromethorphan

oral solution,

 

3.5 mg (bromide)/5 ml

Section 26:
Solutions correcting Water, Electrolyte
and Acid-base Disturbances

26.1 ORAL

oral rehydration salts (for glucose-

for composition

electrolyte solution)

see section 17.7.1

potassium chloride

powder for solution

 

26.2 PARENTERAL

glucose

injectable solution,

 

5% isotonic, 10% isotonic,

 

50% hypertonic

glucose with

injectable solution, 4%

sodium chloride

glucose, 0.18% sodium chloride

 

(equivalent to Na +30 mmol/l

 

Cl -30 mmol/l)

potassium chloride (2)

11.2% solution in

 

20-ml ampoule, (equivalent to

 

K + 1.5 mmol/ml, Cl -1.5 mmol/ml)

sodium chloride

injectable solution, 0.9%

 

isotonic (equivalent to Na + 154

 

mmol/l, Cl -154 mmol/l)

sodium hydrogen

injectable solution, 1.4%

carbonate

isotonic (equivalent to Na + 167

 

mmol/l, HCO3 - 167 mmol/l)

 

8.4% solution in 10-ml ampoule

 

(equivalent to Na + 1000 mmol/l,

 

HCO3 - 1000 mmol/l)

*compound solution of

injectable solution

sodium lactate

 
 

26.3 MISCELLANEOUS

water for injection

2-ml, 5-ml, 10-ml ampoules

Section 27: Vitamins and Minerals

ascorbic acid

tablet, 50 mg

*ergocalciferol

capsule or tablet, 1.25 mg

 

(50 000 IU)

 

oral solution,

 

250 µg/ml (10 000 IU/ml)

iodine (8)

iodized oil, 1 ml (480 mg iodine),

 

0.5 ml (240 mg iodine) in

 

ampoule (oral or injectable)

 

0.57 ml, (308 mg iodine)

 

in dispenser bottle

 

capsule, 200 mg

*nicotinamide

tablet, 50 mg

pyridoxine

tablet, 25 mg (hydrochloride)

*retinol

sugar-coated tablet, 10 000 IU

 

(as palmitate) (5.5 mg)

 

capsule, 200 000 IU (as

 

palmitate) (110 mg)

 

oral oily solution,

 

100 000 IU/ml in multidose

 

dispenser (as palmitate)

 

water-miscible injection,

 

100 000 IU (as palmitate)

 

(55 mg) in 2-ml ampoule

riboflavin

tablet, 5 mg

*sodium fluoride

in any appropriate formulation

thiamine

tablet, 50 mg (hydrochloride)

The following changes in the WHO Model List were approved by the WHO Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines which met in April 2002. The report of the meeting will be published in the WHO Technical Report Series.

Additions: abacavir (ABC), didanosine (ddl), lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), efavirenz (EFV or EFZ), indinavir (IDV), ritonavir (RTV, r), lopinavir (LPV), nelfinavir (NFV), saquinavir (SQV), artemether + lumefantrine, amikacin, p-aminosalicylic acid, capreomycin, cycloserine, ethionamide, kanamycin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin

 

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