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The Uruguay Round and Drugs - Health Economics
(1997; 40 pages) View the PDF document
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), which was negotiated as part of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994) may have great implications for the production of and access to drugs, especially in developing countries. The Round’s Final Act signed in Marrakech in 1994, established the World Trade Organization (WTO) whose Member countries are bound to implement the principles and provisions laid down in the Agreement. This paper comments on the possible effects of the Agreement on the development, production and marketing of drugs, as well as on access to them. In so doing, it refers to the 16 Articles (of the 73 Articles of the Agreement) which most concern the pharmaceutical sector... Following a detailed analysis of the effects of the new intellectual property rights relating to pharmaceuticals, especially in developing countries, the study concludes that: (a) although protection of pharmaceutical products will be enhanced at a high standard, this will not necessarily be to the benefit of all countries, (b) an increase in research and development on new drugs will not take place in either developed or developing countries, (c) the transitional period for entry into force of the Agreement allows countries to temporarly limit the introduction of pharmaceutical patents, and (d) measures to be borne in mind when incorporating the provisions of the Agreement into domestic legislation are (i) compulsory licences, (ii) international exhaustion of rights, (iii) exclusion from patentability of certain substances.
Table of Contents
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentExecutive Summary
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Patents
View the document3. Undisclosed information
Open this folder and view contents4. Transitional periods
View the document5. Enforcement and settlement of disputes
View the document6. Implications for the development, production and marketing of drugs
View the document7. Conclusions
View the documentReferences

The Uruguay Round and Drugs - Health Economics

Distr: General
Original: English

Carlos M. Correa,
Master’s Degree in Science & Technology Policy Management,
University of Buenos Aires



February 1997

© World Health Organization, 1997

This document is not a formal publication of the World Health Organization (WHO), and all rights are reserved by the Organization. The document may, however be freely reviewed, abstracted, reproduced or translated, in part or in whole, but not for sale or for use in conjunction with commercial purposes.


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