Integrating Public Health Concerns into Patent Legislation in Developing Countries
(2000; 140 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentTHE SOUTH CENTRE
View the documentFOREWORD
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentGLOSSARY*
Open this folder and view contentsI. INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsII. PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER
Open this folder and view contentsIII. SCOPE OF CLAIMS
Open this folder and view contentsIV. PATENTABILITY REQUIREMENTS
Close this folderV. SPECIAL CASES IN PHARMACEUTICALS
View the documentV.1 Selection Patents
View the documentV.2 Prior Public Availability
View the documentV.3 Polymorphism
View the documentV.4 Analogy processes
View the documentV.5 Compositions
View the documentV.6 Optical Isomers
View the documentV.7 Active Metabolites
View the documentV.8 Prodrugs
Open this folder and view contentsVI. DISCLOSURE
Open this folder and view contentsVII. EXCEPTIONS TO EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS
Open this folder and view contentsVIII. EXAMINATION AND OBSERVATION PROCEDURES
Open this folder and view contentsIX. CLAIMS INTERPRETATION
Open this folder and view contentsX. COMPULSORY LICENSING
View the documentXI. FINAL REMARKS
View the documentREFERENCES
View the documentBACK COVER
 

V.6 Optical Isomers

A special case takes place when a compound is an optically active enantiomer110 of a compound previously known only in racemic form. While some patent offices, such as EPO, have ruled that such enantiomers may be deemed novel, the existence of inventive step has been denied, since it is obvious that in such types of molecules optically active forms can exist and it is routine to test whether one or the other enantiomers in isolation is more active than the mixture of both (“racemic mixture”). Today, it is generally accepted that one optical isomer will typically have much higher activity than the other, so that superior activity for at least one of the isomers as compared to the racemate is to be expected111.

110 Enantiomers are chemical compounds which behave in relation to one another as an image does to its mirror image. In organic chemistry, enantiomers occur for example in compounds which comprise a carbon atom with four different substituents. See, e.g., Hansen and Hirsch, 1997, p. 113. It is estimated that over a quarter of known pharmaceuticals present that property. See, e.g., Cook, Doyle and Jabbari, 1991, p. 84.

111 See, e.g., Grubb, 1999, p. 199-200; Hansen and Hirsch, 1997, p. 113-118.

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