Guidelines for Clinical Research on Acupuncture
(1995; 68 pages)
Table of Contents
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contents1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Glossary
Open this folder and view contents3. Goals and objectives of the guidelines
Open this folder and view contents4. General considerations
Close this folder5. Research methodology
View the documentLiterature review
View the documentTerminology and technology
View the documentInvestigators
View the documentClinical research design and rational use of acupuncture
View the documentRandomized controlled clinical trial design
View the documentProtocol development
View the documentResearch knowledge
View the documentCase report forms
View the documentData management
View the documentEthics review board
View the documentStatistical analysis
View the documentMonitoring of studies
View the documentReporting
View the documentImplementation
View the documentConclusions
View the document6. Using the guidelines
Open this folder and view contentsAnnexes
View the documentBibliography
View the documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
View the documentBack cover

Terminology and technology

To ensure the reproducibility of a clinical study on acupuncture, related terminology and technology should be clearly presented and exact protocols should be established.

• Standard acupuncture nomenclature. The standard acupuncture nomenclature developed by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific and recommended by a WHO scientific group that met in Geneva in 1989 should be used during the study.

• Length and diameter of needle(s) should be given in mm.

• Considering the lack of international standards for the location of acupuncture points, the way to locate point(s) clinically should be described and used by all investigators involved in the study. The use of anatomical marks on the body for locating point(s) should be encouraged.

• Needling techniques of inserting, retaining, stimulating and withdrawing, should be standardized and stated in the protocol. All efforts for limiting the individual influence of investigators on the performance of the needling technique should be considered.

• The use of auxiliary acupuncture equipment such as lasers or electrical stimulators should be clearly described.

• Other factors related to the patient’s condition may also need to be reported such as biorhythm, breathing and position.

to previous section
to next section
The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO. Last updated: December 6, 2017