A common theme have been controls on entry to medical education (now exercised in all countries except Belgium and Luxembourg which has no medical school). Of more immediate effect are the controls to enter insurance practice. In most Member States new capital developments in the public sector (and in some cases in the private sector as well) have to be authorised by national, regional or local planning bodies. In Belgium, Ireland and the United Kingdom, there has been very extensive firm action to close hospitals or change them to other uses. There are now plans to close 22,000 public hospitals beds in France and 3,800 in the Netherlands. In Denmark, also the number of hospitals has been falling, mainly through the closure of small units: further reductions are expected. In Spain, smaller acute hospitals have been transferred to use by the chronic sick or by convalescent patients and some have been closed. It is recognised in Luxembourg, that there is a surplus of acute beds, but the procedures to change them for other uses are slow and cumbersome. By contrast, in Portugal and Greece, there is still a trend to build more public hospitals with a slight increase in acute beds.