It is also important to consider providing for opposition procedures before granting a patent. This means that before a patent is granted, society is given an opportunity to make observations about the application. So the patent office may receive contributions from other companies, from academics, from NGOs etc. before the patent is granted, before the problem is created. In many laws, in particular in Latin America, but also in Japan, this system was established; it is a powerful tool in order to avoid the granting of patents which otherwise, later on, may have to be invalidated, but which, in the meantime, can be used against local and/or generic companies to prevent or limit competition.