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Principles for evaluating the effects of chemicals on the aged population / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

A detailed review of research findings and methodological concepts that can guide efforts to characterize the susceptibility of the aged population to the harmful effects of environmental chemicals. Noting that few, if any, of the hundreds of thousands of environmental chemicals have been tested for increased toxicity in the elderly, the book uses knowledge from the fields of gerontology and toxicology to propose methodological principles for investigating the elderly as a population at special risk. Particular attention is given to methods for determining chronic effects, including cancer, linked to the long-term exposures that may characterize this age group. Findings from close to 700 epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies were critically assessed. The book has four main chapters. The first introduces and discusses the many complex factors that complicate efforts to link chemical exposure to adverse effects on the health of the elderly. Problems considered include the lack of a unified theory of aging, the inability to distinguish intrinsic aging from either disease or toxic response, and the difficulty of determining exposures and doses that have accumulated over decades. The chapter also categorizes classes of chemicals according to their relevance to the aged population, discusses demographic trends, and points to several distinctive life-style variables in the elderly that influence their susceptibility to environmental chemicals. The second chapter provides a detailed review of age-related changes at the genetic, molecular and cellular level, and in individual tissues, organs and systems. For each organ or system discussed, emphasis is placed on age-related changes in structure which might alter functional responses to environmental insults, including chemicals. The third chapter, focused on the basis of altered sensitivity, explores age-related changes in chemical sensitivity as reflected in altered pharmacokinetics and changes in the pharmacodynamics of the central nervous system, endocrine system, kidney, immune system, and other systems and tissues. Theories for explaining the interactions of chemicals and diseases in the aging organism are also reviewed, together with the influence of modifying factors, such as nutrition, alcohol intake, and smoking. The fourth chapter describes the special methodological requirements that need to be met when investigating the effects of chemicals on the aged population. Guidelines are provided for experimental, epidemiological, and clinical approaches, and for the development of biomarkers of aging. The book concludes that the adverse effects of chemical exposure on the aged population will become a health care issue of growing importance

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General scientific principles of chemical safety / scientific editor: L. Fishbein
Fishbein, Lawrence; World Health Organization. Chemical Safety Team; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ( 2000 )
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Chemical risk assessment : human risk assessment, environmental risk assessment and ecological risk assessment
World Health Organization. Promotion of Chemical Safety Unit; International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ( 1999 )
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Chemical safety : fundamentals of applied toxicology : the nature of chemical hazards
Duffus, J; Richardson, M; World Health Organization. Promotion of Chemical Safety Unit; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ( 1997 )
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The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification : 2004
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2004 )
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The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 1996-97
International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization. Promotion of Chemical Safety Unit; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization ( 1996 )
Biomarkers and risk assessment : concepts and principles / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

A guide to the concepts and principles governing the use of biomarkers to assess the risks to human health posed by exposure to chemical agents. Emphasis is placed on criteria for the selection and validation of appropriate biomarkers of exposure, of toxic effect, and of susceptibility in either individuals or sub-populations. The book also explains how the use of validated biomarkers to monitor exposed populations can provide the basis for early public health interventions. The book opens with background information on the uses of biomarkers for health risk assessment, clinical diagnosis, and the monitoring of exposure, followed by a discussion of the principles and methods governing their selection and validation. The ethical and social issues that need to be considered when designing research projects are also discussed. The main part of the book sets out guidelines, supported by examples from recent research, for the selection and use of biomarkers of exposure, of effect, of carcinogenicity, and of susceptibility. For biomarkers of effect, the book concentrates on biomarkers that are currently used or under development to assess toxic effects on the hepatic, renal, haematological, immune, pulmonary, reproductive, developmental and nervous systems. For biomarkers of genotoxic carcinogens, the book describes currently available techniques using DNA adducts, protein adducts, cytogenic methods, chromosome damage, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei, aneuploidy, and mutation. Biomarkers for non-genotoxic carcinogens are also briefly discussed. The concluding chapter, on susceptibility, alerts researchers to the many factors that can affect individual susceptibility to the toxic effects of chemicals

Quality management for chemical safety testing / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

A highly detailed guide to the principles and specifics of quality management needed to ensure that studies of chemical safety produce accurate and meaningful results. Focused on the management of both the laboratory and the individual studies it conducts, the book stresses the need to establish and follow formal standard procedures for virtually every laboratory practice that can influence the quality of study results. The objective is to help laboratory managers and staff think through all possible sources of error and plan appropriate measures for their control. Details range from a list of the types of records that must be kept to a description of the precautions needed to make certain that chemicals used for cleaning or pest control in animal rooms do not interfere with the study. The book has three chapters. The first provides a guide to the principles of management and organization required for quality assurance, stressing the importance of making quality assurance an itegral part of the entire study process. To this end, readers are given advice on the selection and training of personnel, the use of inspections and audits, the design of facilities, the maintenance and calibration of equipment, and the formulation and use of written standard operating procedures. Other sections give detailed advice on the quality management of specific laboratory routines and procedures, moving from the preparation of the study plan, through the characterization of test, control, and reference substances, to the reporting of results. The second chapter explains how quality management can be applied to procedures for handling animals at all stages of a toxicity study, from the shipping and receipt of animals to the transfer of tissues and specimens to archives. The final chapter covers the quality control of studies designed to measure the presence of chemicals in humans and the environment, and to monitor the extent and effects of exposure

Isophorone : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; International Labour Organization; United Nations Environment Programme ( 1995 )
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Information useful for the identification of hazards during the manufacture, storage, transport, use and disposal of substances : an annotated checklist
World Health Organization. Promotion of Chemical Safety Unit; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )