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Quality management for chemical safety testing / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

A highly detailed guide to the principles and specifics of quality management needed to ensure that studies of chemical safety produce accurate and meaningful results. Focused on the management of both the laboratory and the individual studies it conducts, the book stresses the need to establish and follow formal standard procedures for virtually every laboratory practice that can influence the quality of study results. The objective is to help laboratory managers and staff think through all possible sources of error and plan appropriate measures for their control. Details range from a list of the types of records that must be kept to a description of the precautions needed to make certain that chemicals used for cleaning or pest control in animal rooms do not interfere with the study. The book has three chapters. The first provides a guide to the principles of management and organization required for quality assurance, stressing the importance of making quality assurance an itegral part of the entire study process. To this end, readers are given advice on the selection and training of personnel, the use of inspections and audits, the design of facilities, the maintenance and calibration of equipment, and the formulation and use of written standard operating procedures. Other sections give detailed advice on the quality management of specific laboratory routines and procedures, moving from the preparation of the study plan, through the characterization of test, control, and reference substances, to the reporting of results. The second chapter explains how quality management can be applied to procedures for handling animals at all stages of a toxicity study, from the shipping and receipt of animals to the transfer of tissues and specimens to archives. The final chapter covers the quality control of studies designed to measure the presence of chemicals in humans and the environment, and to monitor the extent and effects of exposure

Assessing human health risks of chemicals : derivation of guidance values for health-based exposure limits / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1994 )
Abstract

Outlines methods and procedures for the derivation of guidance values for protecting the health of humans exposed to chemical substances. Guidance values provide quantitative information from risk assessment for regulatory authorities and other risk managers, and provide a basis for the establishment of national or local exposure limits and standards. The approach described relates primarily to long-term exposure of the general opulation in the ambient environment. Addressed to all involved in chemical safety, the book aims to promote consistency in the methods used when evaluating the health effects of environmental chemicals and formulating credible conclusions. Information ranges from guidance on the use of uncertainty factors when human data are lacking, through advice on how to establish a tolerable intake when a chemical shows more than one adverse effect, to examples of cases where a guidance value should not be established. The first section introduces key terms and explains the two principal methodological concepts: development of a tolerable intake on the basis of interpretation of available toxicity data, and allocation of the proportions of the tolerable intake to various environmental media. The second section describes procedures for determining a tolerable intake on the basis of toxicity data. Section three sets out a series of steps to be followed when extrapolating from a toxicity data base to a tolerable intake, moving from selection of a pivotal study and critical effects, through interspecies extrapolation, to a final review of the total uncertainty factor. The concluding section offers advice on the allocation of tolerable intakes to derive guidance values

Monocrotophos : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
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The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification : 2004
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2004 )
Principles for evaluating the effects of chemicals on the aged population / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

A detailed review of research findings and methodological concepts that can guide efforts to characterize the susceptibility of the aged population to the harmful effects of environmental chemicals. Noting that few, if any, of the hundreds of thousands of environmental chemicals have been tested for increased toxicity in the elderly, the book uses knowledge from the fields of gerontology and toxicology to propose methodological principles for investigating the elderly as a population at special risk. Particular attention is given to methods for determining chronic effects, including cancer, linked to the long-term exposures that may characterize this age group. Findings from close to 700 epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies were critically assessed. The book has four main chapters. The first introduces and discusses the many complex factors that complicate efforts to link chemical exposure to adverse effects on the health of the elderly. Problems considered include the lack of a unified theory of aging, the inability to distinguish intrinsic aging from either disease or toxic response, and the difficulty of determining exposures and doses that have accumulated over decades. The chapter also categorizes classes of chemicals according to their relevance to the aged population, discusses demographic trends, and points to several distinctive life-style variables in the elderly that influence their susceptibility to environmental chemicals. The second chapter provides a detailed review of age-related changes at the genetic, molecular and cellular level, and in individual tissues, organs and systems. For each organ or system discussed, emphasis is placed on age-related changes in structure which might alter functional responses to environmental insults, including chemicals. The third chapter, focused on the basis of altered sensitivity, explores age-related changes in chemical sensitivity as reflected in altered pharmacokinetics and changes in the pharmacodynamics of the central nervous system, endocrine system, kidney, immune system, and other systems and tissues. Theories for explaining the interactions of chemicals and diseases in the aging organism are also reviewed, together with the influence of modifying factors, such as nutrition, alcohol intake, and smoking. The fourth chapter describes the special methodological requirements that need to be met when investigating the effects of chemicals on the aged population. Guidelines are provided for experimental, epidemiological, and clinical approaches, and for the development of biomarkers of aging. The book concludes that the adverse effects of chemical exposure on the aged population will become a health care issue of growing importance

Carbaryl : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Methamidophos : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Isophorone : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; International Labour Organization; United Nations Environment Programme ( 1995 )
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WHO human health risk assessment toolkit: chemical hazards
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2010 )
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The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 2009
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2010 )