Search


Current filters:

New search
Add filters

Refine your search


Results 1-10 of 23.
Item hits:
Cadmium / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Polychlorinated biphenyls and terphenyls
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

Evaluates the vast body of evidence demonstrating the serious threat to human and environmental health posed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These chemicals, which are now ubiquitous in the environment, have been used commercially since 1930 as dielectric and heat-exchange fluids and in a variety of other applications. Over 1,300 studies were critically assessed. The book also contains a brief review of the limited data on polychlorinated terphenyls. A section devoted to the environmental behaviour of PCBs assesses the mechanisms by which these highly persistent chemicals, previously introduced into the environment, are gradually being redistributed towards increased contamination of the marine environment. For the general population, the most important sources of exposure are identified as food items and, for babies, breast-milk. The well-documented signs of poisoning in occupationally-exposed workers are also reviewed. A section devoted to the metabolic fate of PCBs cites evidence of accumulation in the liver and the adipose tissues of various organs, placental transport, fetal accumulation, and distribution to milk. The most extensive section, which runs some 100 pages, evaluates findings from studies of toxicity in experimental animals and in vitro systems. Findings suggest that PCBs are immunosuppressive and act as tumour promoters. An assessment of effects on humans draws upon studies of two large outbreaks of poisoning from contaminated food, and of occupational exposures. Concerning risks to the environment, the report cites reproductive failure in sea mammals as the most important hazard, further concluding that the predicted redistribution of residues towards the marine environment will pose an increasing hazard for sea mammals in the future. A review of the hazards of polychlorinated terphenyls concludes the report

International Workshop on Human Health and Environmental Effects of Motor Vehicle Fuels and their Exhaust Emissions, Sydney, Australia, 6-10 April, 1992 / edited by R. Manuell ... [et al.]
International Workshop on Human Health and Environmental Effects of Motor Vehicle Fuels and their Exhaust Emissions (1992: Sydney, Australia); Manuell, R; Callan, Philip; Bentley, K; McPhail, S; Smith, E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Beryllium / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization ( 1990 )
Abstract

Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by the use of beryllium, a brittle metal having major applications in the electronics and micro-electronics industries, in nuclear energy, and in the production of military devices, including satellites, missiles, atomic bombs, and other weapons. Beryllium has also proved its superiority as a structural material for aircraft and spacecraft. An evaluation of sources of exposure cites the combustion of fossil fuels as the most important source of atmospheric beryllium, with coal singled out as the main pollutant source. Concerning sources of human exposure, the report notes that toxicologically relevant exposure is almost exclusively confined to the work-place. Only two applications pose a risk to the general population: mantle-type camping lanterns and the use of beryllium in dentistry.The most extensive section evaluates data from the large number of toxicological studies documenting the development of acute chemical pneumonitis and a highly species-specific induction of pulmonary cancer. An evaluation of effects on humans, which concentrates on occupational exposures, summarizes findings on the occurrence of both acute and chronic beryllium disease. The review also yields clinically useful information on exposure levels, characteristic signs and symptoms, and the most reliable diagnostic tests. In view of the controversy concerning the carcinogenicity of beryllium, particularly careful attention was given to several studies reporting a signifcantly elevated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Evidence was judged sufficient to confirm the role of beryllium in the development of human lung cancer. The report further concludes that the potential of beryllium to provoke contact allergic reactions, supported by several reports of allergic contact stomatitis in dental patients, calls for a reconsideration of the use of this metal in dentistry

Triphenyl phosphate / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1991 )
Abstract

Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by the production and use of triphenyl phosphate, a compound widely used as a flame retardant in phenolic and phenylene-oxide-based resins for the manufacture of electrical and automobile components. Triphenyl phosphate is also used as a non-flammable plasticizer in cellulose acetate for photographic films, and as a component of hydraulic fluids and lubricant oils. Main sources of release into the environment are identified as leakage or spills of hydraulic fluid, leaching from plastics, and manufacturing processes. A review of data on effects on organisms in the environment concentrates on risks to the aquatic environment, concluding that triphenyl phosphate is the most acutely toxic of te various triaryl phosphates to fish, shrimp, and daphnids. The remaining sections evaluate toxic effects as determined through studies in experimental models and observations in humans. The book notes that triphenyl phosphate exhibits low toxicity in short-term studies, is not mutagenic, and has not been shown, in several well-designed studies, to cause delayed neuropathy or other neurotoxic changes. Studies of exposed workers found no evidence of neurological disease or other abnormalities. Risks to the environment are likewise judged to be low, though spills of hydraulic fluid could result in fish kills

Principles for evaluating the effects of chemicals on the aged population / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

A detailed review of research findings and methodological concepts that can guide efforts to characterize the susceptibility of the aged population to the harmful effects of environmental chemicals. Noting that few, if any, of the hundreds of thousands of environmental chemicals have been tested for increased toxicity in the elderly, the book uses knowledge from the fields of gerontology and toxicology to propose methodological principles for investigating the elderly as a population at special risk. Particular attention is given to methods for determining chronic effects, including cancer, linked to the long-term exposures that may characterize this age group. Findings from close to 700 epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies were critically assessed. The book has four main chapters. The first introduces and discusses the many complex factors that complicate efforts to link chemical exposure to adverse effects on the health of the elderly. Problems considered include the lack of a unified theory of aging, the inability to distinguish intrinsic aging from either disease or toxic response, and the difficulty of determining exposures and doses that have accumulated over decades. The chapter also categorizes classes of chemicals according to their relevance to the aged population, discusses demographic trends, and points to several distinctive life-style variables in the elderly that influence their susceptibility to environmental chemicals. The second chapter provides a detailed review of age-related changes at the genetic, molecular and cellular level, and in individual tissues, organs and systems. For each organ or system discussed, emphasis is placed on age-related changes in structure which might alter functional responses to environmental insults, including chemicals. The third chapter, focused on the basis of altered sensitivity, explores age-related changes in chemical sensitivity as reflected in altered pharmacokinetics and changes in the pharmacodynamics of the central nervous system, endocrine system, kidney, immune system, and other systems and tissues. Theories for explaining the interactions of chemicals and diseases in the aging organism are also reviewed, together with the influence of modifying factors, such as nutrition, alcohol intake, and smoking. The fourth chapter describes the special methodological requirements that need to be met when investigating the effects of chemicals on the aged population. Guidelines are provided for experimental, epidemiological, and clinical approaches, and for the development of biomarkers of aging. The book concludes that the adverse effects of chemical exposure on the aged population will become a health care issue of growing importance

Thumbnail
Record of a meeting of directors of IPCS participating institutions (PIs held 13-17 September 1988, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1988 )
Polybrominated biphenyls / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1994 )
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon widely used in the cleaning and degreasing of metal and as a solvent in many industrial and consumer products. The abuse of this solvent has resulted in a large number of fatalities. A review of data on the environmental behaviour of 1,1,1-trichloroethane documents its ubiquitous presence in the atmosphere, its rapid transport to the troposphere, its long residence time, its depletion of ozone, and its contribution to global warming. Leaching into ground water and deep aquifers occurs and persistent contamination has been documented. While contamination of the atmosphere is judged to be the most important route of exposure for the general population, the report notes that indoor air may cause considerably higher exposures due to the use of numerous consumer products containing this solvent. Air is also noted to be the main source of exposure at the workplace. An evaluation of effects on humans draws upon studies of occupationally exposed workers and cases of fatal exposure following accidents and intentional abuse. Both acute and long-term inhalation exposures are noted to affect the central nervous system, with signs ranging from slight behavioural changes to unconsciousness. Exposure may also cause damage to the heart and liver. A review of accidents at the workplace underscores the especially dangerous conditions in poorly ventilated areas and confined spaces, such as tanks and vaults, caused by the compounds greater density than air. The final section evaluates effects on organisms in the field, concluding that environmental conamination is unlikely to pose a significant hazard for environmental organisms. Because of its many other hazards, including its ozone-depleting potential, the report recommends that the release of 1,1,1-trichloroethane be reduced to the greatest extent possible

Ecotoxicology and climate : with special reference to hot and cold climates / edited by Philippe Bourdeau ... [et al.]
Bourdeau, Philippe; Haines, J. A; Klein, Werner; Krishna Murti, C. R; International Council of Scientific Unions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1989 )