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Methods for second-generation HIV surveillance implementation for countries of central and eastern Europe (CEE) and the Baltic States : report on a WHO Workshop, Berlin Germany 27-29 May 2002
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2002 )
Abstract

Second generation HIV surveillance aims to improve collection, analysis and use of data essential to AIDS and HIV control programmes for better monitoring the epidemic and for guiding the response to it. In countries with low level or concentrated HIV epidemics, such as those in many eastern European countries, surveillance of population groups at increased risk of HIV infection is emphasized. Surveillance and monitoring should cover both biomedical and social/behavioural factors. Problems of accessibility and in obtaining the participation of high-risk hard-to-reach groups in sentinel biological and behavioural surveys is a key concern of second generation surveillance. This report covers discussion of the experience of Baltic States and central European countries in conducting HIV surveillance, in particular the various approaches, methodologies and techniques used in second generation surveillance

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Health aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide : report on a WHO working group, Bonn, Germany 13-15 January 2003
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2003 )
Abstract

Detailed knowledge on the effects of air pollutants on human health is a prerequisite for the development of effective policies to reduce the adverse impact of ambient air pollution. The second edition of WHO's Air quality guidelines (AQG) for Europe, formulated in 1996, summarizes systematically the effects of several air pollutants. These guidelines have been used extensively to establish regulatory frameworks for air quality assessment and management. To support the development of European Union policy on clean air for Europe (CAFÉ), this WHO Working Group (WG) was convened to review systematically the most recent scientific evidence on the adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The review focused on studies that were published after the second edition of the WHO AQG was produced, and which have been influential in changing our views on health-related aspects of the substances under consideration. The WG adopted a recommendation to use fine particulate matter, (PM2.5), as the indicator for health effects induced by particulate pollution such as increased risk of mortality in Europe, to supplement the commonly used PM10 (which includes fine and coarse particles). It also acknowledged the evidence that ozone produces short-term effects on mortality and respiratory morbidity, even at the low ozone concentrations experienced in many cities in Europe. Based on these findings the WG recommended that WHO should update exposure-response relationships for the most severe health outcomes induced by particulate matter and ozone presented by AQGs. The WG also concluded that an update of the current WHO AQG for nitrogen dioxide, which is also an important precursor for the formation of ozone and particulate matter, was not warranted

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Policy guidance on water-related disease surveillance
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2011 )
Guidelines for self care in oral health
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1988 )
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Technical guidance on water-related disease surveillance / edited by E. Funari ... [et al]
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2011 )
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The European Commission's Communication on alcohol, and the WHO framework for alcohol policy : analysis to guide development of national alcohol action plans / edited by Lars Moeller and Srdan Matic
Moeller, Lars; Matic, Srdan; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2010 )
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Handbook for action to reduce alcohol-related harm
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2009 )
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Food-based dietary guidelines in the WHO European Region
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2003 )
Abstract

An unhealthy diet combined with physical inactivity increase the risk for non-communicable diseases (NCD) enormously. There is a clear need for political commitment to nutrition policies which will help prevent NCD through provision of enough healthy, affordable food, especially fresh fruit and vegetables. Part of this political action should include the translation of nutrient population goals into food-based dietary guidelines at the national level. It is fundamental that the Ministry of Health endorses food-based dietary guidelines that are consistent and easily understood. The aim of this survey was to assess the existence of national, government-endorsed food-based dietary guidelines in Member States of the WHO European Region. The findings of this survey illustrate important discrepancies between sub-regions and from country to country in national food-based dietary guidelines. Further effort will be required in the development of dietary guidelines as well as in the implementation of national nutrition policies

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Community participation in local health and sustainable development : approaches and techniques
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2002 )
Abstract

Community participation is a core part of both Healthy Cities and Local Agenda 21 work. This document briefly describes what community participation is and why it is important. A strategic approach is needed to achieve effective work in this area. The document explores in detail the techniques and methods frequently used and categorizes them in relation to five aspects of an action planning model : assessing needs and assets, agreeing on vision, generating ideas and plans for action, enabling action and monitoring and evaluation. The document provides specific guidance to people wishing to engage in their own community participation activities. Case studies, contacts and reference material are included

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Updating and revision of the air quality guidelines for Europe : report on a WHO Working Group on Volatile Organic Compounds, Brussels, Belgium, 2-6 October 1995
WHO Working Group on Volatile Organic Compounds (1995: Brussels, Belgium); World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1996 )
Abstract

As part of the updating and revision of the WHO air quality guidelines for Europe, the WHO Working Group on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) met in Brussels in October 1995. The Group discussed various qualitative and quantitative aspects of the health risks associated with exposure to selected organic air pollutants: benzene, butadiene, dichloromethane, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, styrene, toluene and tri- and tetrachloroethylene. The Group had received draft chapters on these pollutants, prepared by experts, before the meeting. The Group also discussed a brief summary of the work on total VOCs, performed within the framework of the European Collaborative Action "Indoor Air Quality and its Impact on Man", in which WHO is involved. The Group achieved its principal goal of finalizing the health risk evaluations of the pollutants discussed, which included reaching consensus on guideline values or risk estimates