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Propachlor
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by propachlor, a re-emergence and early post-emergence herbicide in use since 1965. Derived from acetanilide, propachlor is used in agriculture to control annual grasses and some broad-leaved weeds in several crops, including corn, sorghum, pumpkins, flax and flowers. A section devoted to the environmental behaviour of propachlor cites rapid degradation by microorganisms in soil and water, and concludes that this chemical does not bioconcentrate or biomagnify. Studies of metabolic fate in different mammalian species point to rapid elimination of propachlor and its metabolites. The remaining sections evaluate findings from toxicological investigations in experimental animals and, for humans, the limited data available from cases of contact and allergic dermatitis reported in farmers and production workers exposed to propachlor. For experimental animals, the liver and kidneys are identified as the target organs. For human exposures, the report found no evidence of symptoms or diseases reported for either occupationally exposed workers or the general population, with the exception of scattered reports of dermatitis in workers. On the basis of these evaluations, the report concludes that, under conditions of normal use, exposure of the general population is unlikely. For occupationally exposed workers, the report recommends the use of adequate safety and hygienic precautions to protect the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Though propachlor is judged to pose a low hazard to birds, earthworms, and honey-bees, evidence indicates high toxicity to some aquatic organisms, supporting the conclusion that direct contamination of water courses should be avoided

Global Environmental Epidemiology Network (GEENET : list of participants, May 1993
World Health Organization. Prevention of Environmental Pollution Unit; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
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Man-made mineral fibres / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Man-Made Mineral Fibres ( 1988 )
Allethrins : health and safety guide, allethrin, d-allethrin, bioallethrin, S-bioallethrin
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1989 )
Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens : report of the International Programme on Chemical Safety's Collaborative Study on In Vitro Assays / edited by John Ashby ... [et al.]
Ashby, John; International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization; International Labour Organization; United Nations Environment Programme ( 1985 )
Thiocarbamate pesticides : a general introduction / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; WHO Task Group on Thiocarbamate Pesticides ( 1988 )
Abstract

A general review of data on thiocarbamate pesticides, including brief evaluations of their impact on man, animals, plants, and the environment. Intended to serve as an introduction to this group of pesticides, the review concentrates on data available for the compounds that are most used and best known. A summary of basic properties and analytical procedures is followed by a review of data on mechanisms of environmental transport, distribution, and biotransformation, suggesting that most of these compounds are readily degraded. Other sections describe the main metabolic pathways in mammals and plants and summarize toxicity data indicating that the acute oral and dermal toxicities of these compound are generally low. The review concludes with a tabulation of physical and chemical data for 11 thiocarbamates, followed by a summary of recommended classification by hazard for eight commonly used compounds

Quelques radionucléides : tritium, carbone-14, krypton-85, strontium-90, iode, césium-137, radon, plutonium / publié sous la triple égide du Programme des Nations Unies pour l' Environnement, de l' Organisation internationale du Travail et de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé
International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1987 )
Abstract

Ce document rend compte des observations et recommandations d'une étude concernant la destinée des quelques radionucléides dans l'environnement et leur dosimétrie. L'étude porte tout particulièrement sur les radionucléides qui sont le plus fréquemment libérés ou rejetés à partir de sources naturelles et artificielles et qui contribuent le plus à la radioexposition de la population en temps normal. Les données relatives à chacun des radionucléides considérés sont présentées et analysées d'après leurs sources, y compris les explosions nucléaires, leur destinée dans l'environnement, leur transfert à l'homme et leur dosimétrie. Ce rapport s'achève sur une trentaine de pages d'extraits des Normes fondamentales de radioprotection, document contenant des indications destinées aux autorités nationales, sur l'établissement de limites pour les radionucléides

Butanols - four isomers : 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, isobutanol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization ( 1987 )
Abstract

Presents individual monographs on the risks to health and the environment associated with 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, and isobutanol. These butanol isomers, which occur naturally as products of fermentation, are also synthesized from petrochemicals and widely used as solvents and intermediates in chemical industries. Human exposure to high concentrations is primarily occupational, while exposure to low concentrations is mainly through foods in which the isomers occur either naturally or as flavouring agents. Although the butanol isomers can be classified as slightly or practically nontoxic, all isomers, in large amounts, have the ability to induce signs of alcoholic intoxication in both animals and man. The most extensive section of each monograph covers data on biological effects observed in experimental animals, in in vitro test systems, and in cases of accidental occupational exposure in man. Particular attention is given to studies useful in assessing effects on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract of workers exposed to these chemicals

Chlorothalonil : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization ( 1995 )
Fluorine and fluorides / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization; IPCS Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Fluorine and Fluorides ( 1984 )
Abstract

An expert assessment of both the beneficial and toxic effects to human health posed by the use of fluorine and fluorides. Conclusions and recommendations are based on a critical analysis of well over 400 clinical and laboratory investigations. The introductory sections consider methods for the measurement of fluorides in inorganic and organic materials, sources and magnitude of exposure, and effects on health as determined through a large number of laboratory investigations. The most extensive section is devoted to a critical review of data on beneficial and toxic effects in humans. Beneficial effects of fluoride in drinking water, salt, milk, tablets, and topical applications are considered in terms of the preventive effects on dental caries and their use in the treatment of osteoporosis. Toxic effects reviewed include various forms of fluorosis, effects on renal function, hypersensitivity and dermatological reactions, and carcinogenic and teratogenic risks. On the basis of this review, the report confirms the beneficial effects of fluoride in the prevention of caries, while noting that long-term exposure to high quantities may damage enamel and bone; very high doses cause acute toxic effects and may be lethal