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Boron
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
Principles for the assessment of risks to human health from exposure to chemicals
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1999 )
Principles and methods for assessing allergic hypersensitization associated with exposure to chemicals
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1999 )
Health effects of interactions between tobacco use and exposure to other agents
Rothwell, K; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1999 )
Dimethylformamide / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization ; first draft prepared by A. Bainova
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1991 )
Abstract

Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by the production and use of dimethylformamide, an organic solvent produced in large quantities throughout the world. Dimethylformamide is widely used in the chemical industry as a solvent, an intermediate, and an additive, with the largest quantities used in the production of acrylic fibres and polyurethanes. Dimethylformamide is also used in the production of pharmaceutical products. The opening sections outline the main sources of human and environmental exposure and review studies of the behaviour of dimethylformamide in the environment. Because of its complete solubility in water, dimethylformamide is noted to move readily through soils; accumulation in the food chain is judged unlikely. Concerning effects on organisms in the environment, the limited data available suggest low toxicity for aquatic organisms. The second half of the book reviews findings useful in determining the risks to health posed by exposure of workers and of the general population to dimethylformamide. An extensive review of findings from experimental studies reveals consistent evidence that dimethyl-formamide is a hepatotoxic agent. Both teratogenic and embryotoxic effects have been demonstrated in several species. The final section, which evaluates data from human studies, notes that symptoms associated with cases of acute accidental occupational poisoning are transient and followed by complete recovery. Biochemical signs of liver dysfunction are observed to accompany long-term repeated occupational exposure, but evidence suggesting an increased risk of certain cancers in exposed workers was judged inadequate

Principles for evaluating the effects of chemicals on the aged population / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

A detailed review of research findings and methodological concepts that can guide efforts to characterize the susceptibility of the aged population to the harmful effects of environmental chemicals. Noting that few, if any, of the hundreds of thousands of environmental chemicals have been tested for increased toxicity in the elderly, the book uses knowledge from the fields of gerontology and toxicology to propose methodological principles for investigating the elderly as a population at special risk. Particular attention is given to methods for determining chronic effects, including cancer, linked to the long-term exposures that may characterize this age group. Findings from close to 700 epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies were critically assessed. The book has four main chapters. The first introduces and discusses the many complex factors that complicate efforts to link chemical exposure to adverse effects on the health of the elderly. Problems considered include the lack of a unified theory of aging, the inability to distinguish intrinsic aging from either disease or toxic response, and the difficulty of determining exposures and doses that have accumulated over decades. The chapter also categorizes classes of chemicals according to their relevance to the aged population, discusses demographic trends, and points to several distinctive life-style variables in the elderly that influence their susceptibility to environmental chemicals. The second chapter provides a detailed review of age-related changes at the genetic, molecular and cellular level, and in individual tissues, organs and systems. For each organ or system discussed, emphasis is placed on age-related changes in structure which might alter functional responses to environmental insults, including chemicals. The third chapter, focused on the basis of altered sensitivity, explores age-related changes in chemical sensitivity as reflected in altered pharmacokinetics and changes in the pharmacodynamics of the central nervous system, endocrine system, kidney, immune system, and other systems and tissues. Theories for explaining the interactions of chemicals and diseases in the aging organism are also reviewed, together with the influence of modifying factors, such as nutrition, alcohol intake, and smoking. The fourth chapter describes the special methodological requirements that need to be met when investigating the effects of chemicals on the aged population. Guidelines are provided for experimental, epidemiological, and clinical approaches, and for the development of biomarkers of aging. The book concludes that the adverse effects of chemical exposure on the aged population will become a health care issue of growing importance

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Chemical safety : metabolism and toxicity, collected lectures
World Health Organization. Promotion of Chemical Safety Unit; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
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Summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR through 1991
Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues; World Health Organization. Promotion of Chemical Safety Unit; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Trichloroethylene
International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization ( 1985 )
Abstract

Trichloroethylene is a liquid with extensive applications in metal degreasing, textile cleaning, solvent extraction processes, and as a carrier solvent. Exposure in the workplace, which may occur via inhalation of the vapour or skin contamination with the liquid, is known to carry risks of central nervous system disturbances and liver and kidney damage. This report provides a thorough assessment of the risks to human health and the environment posed by the industrial use of trichloroethylene. Coverage ranges from a survey of analytical methods for assessing levels in human tissues and fluids, through a list of signs and symptoms of over-exposure in man and the treatment of poisoning, to a statement of precautions to follow in handling, storage, and disposal

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Record of the first Meeting of the Poison Centre Working Group for the Project to Develop a Poisons Information Package for Developing Countries, held 7-11 March 1988, London, United Kingdom
Poison Centre Working Group for the Project to Develop a Poisons Information Package for Developing Countries. Meeting (1st: 1988: London); International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1989 )