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Title: Hexachlorobutadiene / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
Authors: World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety
Issue Date: 1994
Publisher: Geneva : World Health Organization
Language: English
Abstract: Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to hexachlorobutadiene. This compound is essentially a waste product formed during the manufacturing of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. Hexachlorobutadiene has limited use as an agricultural fumigant in some parts of the world. The chemical can also be used for the recovery of chlorine-containing gas in chlorine plants and as a wash liquor for removing certain volatile organic compounds from gas streams. A review of experimental studies concentrates on the large body of evidence demonstrating short- and long-term effects on the kidney. These findings support the conclusion that the target organs for toxicity, in humans as well as experimental animals, are the kidney, and to a much lesser extent, the liver. The report also cites evidence supporting the hypothesis that the nephrotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of hexachlorobutadiene are dependent on the biosynthesis of a reactive sulfur metabolite following conjugation with glutathione. In view of the shortage of human studies, the evaluation of effects on health draws upon experimental data supported by evidence that the metabolism of hexachlorobutadiene is similar in humans and animals. The report concludes that hexachlorobutadiene should be regarded as a sensitizing agent. Evidence for carcinogenicity is limited in animals and insufficient in humans. Concerning risks to the environment, the report concludes that aquatic animals may be at risk in polluted surface waters. In view of the toxicity of hexachlorobutadiene to mammals and its high potential to bioaccumulate, the consumption of benthic or aquatic organisms in polluted surface water by other species may constitute an additional cause for concern
Description: Summary and evaluation; conclusions and recommendations also in French and Spanish
136 p.
Subject: Butadienes
Environmental Exposure
Context: toxicity
metadata.dc.subject.other: Chemical Toxicology and Carcinogenicity
Other Identifiers: 924157156X
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