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|Title:||Chlorophenols other than pentachlorophenol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization|
|Authors:||World Health Organization|
International Programme on Chemical Safety
|Publisher:||Geneva : World Health Organization|
|Abstract:||Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by the widespread manufacturing and use of chlorophenols other than pentachlorophenol. These organic chemicals are biocides effective against a large number of organisms, including bacteria, algae, mollusks, acarids, fungi, and moulds. Although agricultural use is now restricted in a number of countries, chlorophenols continue to be widely applied in wood treatment and preservation and in the surface treatment of freshly cut logs and lumber. Smaller amounts are also used as additives to inhibit microbial growth in a range of products, including adhesives, oils, textiles, and pharmaceutical drugs. In view of the predominant uses of chlorophenols, a section linking levels in the environment to human exposure concentrates on the presence of these chemicals in drinking-water, foods and feed, and treated wood. Particular attention is given to levels found at sawmills, paper-mills, wood treatment facilities, and manufacturing sites. A review of data on kinetics and metabolism concludes that experimental animals accumulate chlorophenols mostly in the liver and kidney. The remaining sections evaluate effects on different organisms, health risks as identified in experimental studies and in vitro test systems, and human health effects as determined from both case reports of accidental poisoning and long-term studies of health effects, including possible carcinogenicity, associated with occupational exposures. While the degree of carcinogenic risk could not be determined, the report identifies the main symptoms of occupational exposure as irritation of the eye, nose and airway, dermatitis, chloracne, porphyria, abnormal liver function tests, changes in brain wave activity, and slowed visual reaction time. The book concludes with a series of recommendations concerning the production and disposal of chlorophenols and the measures needed to protect workers and the general public|
|Context:||adverse effects toxicity|
|metadata.dc.subject.other:||Chemical Toxicology and Carcinogenicity|
|Appears in Collections:||Publications|
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