Control of human african trypanosomiasis: a strategy for the African Region: report of the Regional Director
Abstract1. Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by trypanosomes that are transmitted by the tsetse fly. HAT is the only vector-borne parasitic disease with a geographical distribution limited to the African continent. Populations in the age group 15-45 years living in remote rural areas are the most affected, leading to economic loss and social misery. 2. In the early 1960s, the prevalence of HAT had been reduced to very low levels (prevalence rate less than one case per 10 000 inhabitants). Unfortunately, due to lack of regular surveillance activities and reduced resource allocation to HAT as well as changing health priorities and nonavailability of drugs, the disease has been neglected. 3. During the 1980s and 1990s, considerable progress was made in the development or improvement of epidemiological tools suitable for HAT control; however, these were not sufficiently used in the field. All this led to the resurgence of the disease in areas where it was previously controlled, reaching epidemic levels in some instances. WHO estimates are that infected individuals number between 300 000 and 500 000.
Regional Committee for Africa, 55. (2011). Control of human african trypanosomiasis: a strategy for the African Region: report of the Regional Director. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/1872