Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the African region: situation analysis, issues and the way forward
Abstract1. Tuberculosis (TB) is a high-priority disease in the WHO African Region. The Global TB Control Report 20091 shows that, in 2007, the African Region, which accounted for an estimated 12% of the world population, contributed 22% of notified TB cases. Case notification rates have increased from 82:100 000 in 1990 to 158:100 000 in 2007. An estimated 51% of TB patients tested in 2007 were HIV-positive, making HIV infection the single most important risk factor for TB incidence in the Region. The current TB trends need to be reversed for the African Region to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). 2. At its Fifty-third session in 2003, the WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted Resolution AFR/RC53/R6 – Scaling up interventions against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in the WHO African Region. Subsequently at its Fifty-fifth session in Maputo, Mozambique, in 2005, the Regional Committee declared TB an emergency in the African Region.2 3. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is defined as TB caused by organisms that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is MDR-TB that is also resistant to any one of the fluoroquinolones and to at least one of four injectable second-line drugs (amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and viomycin). Between January 2007 and December 2009, a total of 22 032 new MDR-TB cases were reported by 33 countries. An estimated 1501 new XDR-TB cases were reported by eight countries3 during the same period.
Regional Committee for Africa, 60. (2011). Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the African region: situation analysis, issues and the way forward. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/1680