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Collection's Items (Sorted by 提交日期 in 降序 order): 1 to 20 of 134
Mapping the risk and distribution of epidemics in the WHO African Region: a technical report
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2016 )

Disease epidemics result in substantial ill health and loss of lives and therefore pose a threat to global health security, undermine socio-economic lives and destabilize societies. Disease surveillance is a critical component in detecting and effectively responding to epidemics to minimize loss of live and their disruptive consequences. Carefully assembled surveillance data at the highest possible spatial resolutions also permit the understanding of the burden of epidemics, their co-occurrence and the key biological, ecological, economic, health system and governance determinants. It is for this purpose that the WHO-AFRO has commissioned this report. The overarching objective was to develop a comprehensive spatially defined database of outbreaks and epidemics and delineate the ecological zones of diseases that are classified as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) according the International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 and malaria. The main tasks included the assembly of an inventory of all epidemics reported in Africa from 1970-2016 characterised by date of occurrence, length of epidemic and magnitude and district of occurrence; definition of ecological zones of PHEIC diseases and malaria; the assembly of data on important socio-economic, health systems and environmental correlate and an basic statistical analysis of their relationship with occurrence and frequency of epidemics and outbreaks. Through this study, several products have been developed including time series graphs of outbreak and epidemic occurrence by country, maps of the ecologies of the PHEIC diseases and epidemics, the distribution of these diseases by district. Overall, over 1730 outbreaks/epidemics have been reported in the WHO African region in the period 1970 to 2016. Because the outbreak/epidemic thresholds of the different diseases vary and the actual case data is incomplete, it is difficult to compare which diseases are most prevalent or pervasive. However, in terms of frequency of events, cholera, the arboviruses, measles and meningitis rank the highest. Of the nearly 5250 administrative 2 units analysed in this study, almost each one has reported some form of a disease outbreak in the period 1970-2016, with cholera being the most geographically widespread. The resulting databases are spatially defined and should serve as the basis of subnational inventory of disease outbreaks and epidemics in the region. Several challenges were encountered in the process of implementing this exercise: There is limited information on the definitions and thresholds of outbreaks used over time and how this may have been affected by changing diagnostics and case definitions. This results in uncertainties in the temporal comparison of data. There were inconsistencies between the major databases used in this report in terms of occurrence and magnitude of outbreaks. Agreement across more than two databases supported with literature review and consultation with the WHO AFRO and HQ teams helped with data verification. Poor access to national surveillance bulletins, which are an important source of original outbreak and epidemics data, was a challenge to the data verification process and the development of online portals of national surveillance reports is critical. There is limited data before 1980, most likely as a consequence of poor reporting or archiving of outbreak and epidemic data in libraries outside of Africa. In contrast, there is a greater frequency of reported outbreaks in the last 15 years as diagnosis and surveillance improved. For these reasons, extreme caution must be exercised when interpreting the trends in disease outbreaks and epidemics in Africa. The description of the location of outbreak and epidemic events were variable. In some cases the name of village, town or district were reported. In others, the spatial definition of data was at regional or country levels. The aim of this project was to harmonize these data was to define events by district and where this was not possible, the data were reflected in the time series graphs but are not shown on the district maps. Most of the potential correlates of epidemics, particularly those on socio-economic and health system development, are rarely available by district restricting the analysis to national level. The databases and maps produced in this report should be considered as the foundation for tracking epidemics sub-nationally within the WHO African region. However, they require continuous verification, improvements in spatial resolution and regular updating. Finally, these data can also serve as the inputs for disease specific risk and vulnerability analysis. For example, the simple analysis in this report of the correlates shows that urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, percentage GDP expenditure on health, human development index, global hunger index, conflicts, El Nino occurrence and forest cover seemed to correlate with patterns of epidemics. Combining such correlates with the detailed district level outbreak and epidemic data developed under this report could be the basis of further analysis of the assessment of risk of and vulnerability to the PHEICs.

Atlas of african health statistics 2016: health situation analysis of the African Region
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2016 )

WHO’s Atlas of African Health Statistics series is the most comprehensive and widely used source of information on the health situation in the African Region. It provides up-to-date information on the state of health in countries and covers critical areas of health outcomes; health services and systems; specific programmes and services, such as communicable, non-communicable, and epidemic prone diseases; key determinants of health; and progress on the MDGs. These data serve as baseline for monitoring progress on international agreed targets such as those of the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas is produced by the staff of the African Health Observatory at the Regional Office with the contributions and active collaboration of the 47 countries of the African Region. The online companion to the Atlas can be found on the African Health Observatory portal ( where users can carry out searches, perform analyses and download data for further work. The online atlas is developed on an on-going basis with new indicators and new data when they become available.

Guide for Developing National Patient Safety Policy and Strategic Plan
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2014 )

Patient safety practices result in measurable fiscal impact, save lives and decrease morbidity. So, why isn’t everyone insisting on such interventions everywhere? The answer is not simple. Patient safety concepts are not clear to those making decisions, research has not been done in many resource-poor settings to confirm data collected elsewhere, and many authorities still have the misconception that introducing patient safety practices is a luxury. Patient safety improvement requires a system change at all levels. Such a change needs a strong national policy accompanied with a strategic implementation plan to ensure the policy’s consistency and sustainability. As a basis for enforcing effective safety practices, a clear policy that serves as a reference and standard by which to judge the practices is critical. A national patient safety policy is essential but it must reflect the context and needs of the individual country. To avoid reinventing the wheel, patient safety policy must reference internationally approved and tested guidelines and policy recommendations. Policy-makers require an accessible resource for the task of developing the national patient safety policy and patient safety strategic plan in order that they are comprehensive as well as precise and yet uncomplicated and flexible. Such a resource ideally will be used both during the initial policy and strategic plan development and for their subsequent revision. This document outlines a four-step approach for developing a patient safety policy and a strategic plan: • situation analysis • national patient safety policy development • national patient safety strategic plan development • monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the patient safety policy. This document is intended for guiding the selection of patient safety policy points to ensure that the national policy is comprehensive and adequately detailed. Additionally, it can be used to define the key elements of the national patient safety strategic plan. It also lists indicators that can be adapted for monitoring and evaluation of the policy and strategy’s effectiveness at the point of care. Hospital situation analysis tools that may be useful in the assessment and monitoring of patient safety are included. It is anticipated that the systematic approach to patient safety as presented in this document will raise the profile of patient safety in the countries in the African Region and facilitate integration of patient safety priorities into national health delivery systems.

The Africa Health Transformation Programme 2015–2020: A Vision for Universal Health Coverage
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2015 )
Handbook on vector control in malaria elimination
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2015 )
Promouvoir la santé bucco-dentaire en Afrique : prévention et prise en charge des maladies bucco-dentaires et du noma en tant qu’interventions essentielles contre les maladies non transmissibles
Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Bureau régional de l'Afrique ( 2016 )

Chaque jour, en Afrique, des personnes cherchent des moyens de soulager la douleur ou la gêne qui entrave leur capacité à parler, à manger ou à participer aux activités de la vie courante. Dans bien des cas, l’aide peut venir d’interventions essentielles efficaces et peu onéreuses. Sans ces interventions, l’avenir de millions de gens sera placé sous le signe de la souffrance inutile et, pour certains, de la mort. Le manuel Promouvoir la santé bucco-dentaire en Afrique est la réponse apportée par le Bureau régional de l’OMS pour l’Afrique aux demandes des États membres de l’organisation en faveur d’un manuel de référence dont l’objectif est d’aider à prévenir et prendre en charge les maladies bucco-dentaires au niveau des soins de santé primaires. Il fournit une orientation claire et pratique aux agents de santé, communautés et décideurs politiques sur la façon de lutter contre ces maladies. Outre les affections les plus fréquentes, telles que les caries et les maladies parodontales, le manuel aborde également le noma, une « maladie cachée » mortelle et responsable de défiguration sévère. Ce manuel vise à prévenir les maladies bucco-dentaires et à promouvoir une bonne santé buccodentaire. Il souligne le fait qu’améliorer la santé bucco-dentaire fait partie intégrante d’un ensemble d’interventions essentielles contre les maladies non transmissibles au niveau des soins de santé primaires. Le manuel Promouvoir la santé bucco-dentaire en Afrique propose un Paquet Minimum d’Activités Bucco-Dentaires et inclut 10 protocoles conçus spécialement pour aider le personnel des établissements de soins de santé primaires à diagnostiquer et traiter des maladies bucco-dentaires spécifiques. Il présente également les justifications principales à la mise en œuvre d’initiatives de santé dans les écoles et auprès des communautés, et recommande l’intégration d’une série d’activités à ces deux niveaux. Le manuel Promouvoir la santé bucco-dentaire en Afrique a été élaboré avec la participation d’experts de la Région africaine de l’OMS et d’ailleurs. Les leçons apprises lors de la mise en œuvre des recommandations contenues dans le manuel serviront à étayer des mises à jour régulières, garantissant ainsi que le manuel continue à répondre aux besoins des populations africaines et à remplir son objectif : celui d’insuffler un nouvel élan aux efforts locaux et nationaux destinés à améliorer la santé bucco-dentaire.

Promoting Oral Health in Africa: Prevention and control of oral diseases and noma as part of essential noncommunicable disease interventions
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2016 )

Every day, across Africa, people seek relief from pain or discomfort that affects their ability to speak, to eat and to participate in all the routines of normal life. In many cases they can be helped with essential, cost-effective interventions; without such interventions millions of people will continue to suffer needlessly and in some cases die. Promoting Oral Health in Africa is the response by the WHO Regional Office for Africa to requests from across the Region’s 47 countries for a reference manual to help prevent and manage oral diseases at the primary health care level. It provides clear, straightforward guidance to health care workers, communities and decision-makers on how to tackle such diseases. As well as the most frequently presenting conditions, such as tooth decay and gum disease, the manual also addresses noma, a “hidden disease” that causes death and severe disfigurement. This manual aims at the prevention of oral diseases and promotion of good oral health. It emphasizes the fact that improving oral health is an integral part of the essential package of interventions against noncommunicable diseases at the primary health care level. Promoting Oral Health in Africa proposes a Basic Package of Oral Care, and includes a set of 10 protocols written specially for primary health care staff to aid in diagnosing and treating specific oral diseases. It also presents the overall rationale for health initiatives within school and community settings, and recommends a set of integrated activities at both levels. Promoting Oral Health in Africa was developed with the participation of experts from the WHO African Region and beyond. The lessons learnt during implementation of the guidance contained in the manual will be used to inform regular updates, ensuring that the manual continues to respond to the needs of African people and fulfil its goal of re-energizing national and local efforts to improve their oral health.

Interventions clés de prévention et lutte anticancéreuses en vue de réduire la charge cancéreuse dans la Région Africaine de l’OMS : manuel destiné aux dirigeants et aux gestionnaires
Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Bureau régional de l'Afrique ( 2012 )
Orientações para a Criação de um Sistema Nacional de Laboratórios de Saúde
Organização Mundial da Saúde. Escritório Regional para a África ( 2015 )
Lignes directrices pour l’établissement d’un système national de laboratoires de santé
Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Bureau régional de l'Afrique ( 2015 )
Guidance for Establishing a National Health Laboratory System
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2015 )
Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response in the African Region: Community-based Surveillance (CBS) Training Manual
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2015 )
Protocol for the investigation of acute respiratory illness outbreaks of unknown etiology
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2016 )
Declaration on Acceleration of HIV Prevention efforts in the African Region
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2009 )
Brazzaville Commitment on Scaling Up Towards Universal Access to HIV and AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support in Africa by 2010
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2009 )
Progress in scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in East and Southern Africa, January – December 2012
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2013 )

This publication profiles each of the 14 priority countries and the progress each has made as of December 2012 in scaling up VMMC. It includes key health and demographic information; HIV and male circumcision statistics; progress in implementing the seven pillars of the Joint Strategic Action Framework together with successes and challenges.

Guidelines for the prevention and clinical management of snakebite in Africa
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2010 )
Regional Strategic Plan for Immunization 2014-2020
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2015 )
Guia para a investigação sobre implemntaçao da vacinaçao destinada aos gestores de programas da Região Africana da OMS
Organização Mundial da Saúde. Escritório Regional Africano ( 2015 )
A Guide to implementation research on immunization for programme managers in the WHO African region
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa ( 2015 )
Collection's Items (Sorted by 提交日期 in 降序 order): 1 to 20 of 134