Re-Emergence of Dengue and Emergence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in the Americas.
AbstractDengue has been known in the Americas since the 18th century. During the 1960s and 1970s dengue pandemics occurred in the Caribbean, northern South America and Central America, and, during the 1980s and 1990s, virtually every country in the Americas experienced dengue epidemics. Dengue serotypes 1, 2 and 4 circulate widely and, since 1994, DEN-3 has circulated in Central America and Mexico. The first epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever in the Americas occurred in Cuba in 1981 with the introduction of DEN-2 four years after an epidemic of DEN-1, resulting in 344 203 cases, of which 10 312 were severe cases with 158 deaths. Subsequently, occasional cases of DHF occurred in the Americas until 1989-1990 when an epidemic occurred in Venezuela with 3 108 DHF cases and 73 deaths. Between 1981 and 1996 a total of 42 246 cases of DHF and 582 deaths were reported by 25 countries. Countries which reported more than 1000 cases each were Venezuela, Cuba, Colombia, Nicaragua and Mexico. Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue in the Americas, was eradicated from 21 countries in the region during 1948-1972, but due to inadequate surveillance against re-infestation, these countries got infested again and suffered dengue epidemics. As of October 1997, all countries in the Americas, except Bermuda, Canada and Chile, are infested. Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue in Asia, was first found in the Americas in 1985 and is now present in eight countries. Until now this mosquito has not been incriminated as a vector of any virus in the Americas. In 1997 the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) called on the Member countries to follow the hemispheric plan to expand and intensify efforts to combat Aedes aegypti with a view to its eventual eradication in the Americas.
Pinheiro, Francisco. (1997). Re-Emergence of Dengue and Emergence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in the Americas.. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/148532
DescriptionDengue Bulletin. 1997 Dec;21:16-24.
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