Waterpipe smoking and dependence are associated with chronic bronchitis: a case-control study in Lebanon
AbstractWaterpipe smoking and its association with chronic bronchitis has not been assessed in Lebanon. This case-control study in Beirut in 2009/2010 evaluated this relationship: 274 cases of chronic bronchitis and 559 controls without the condition aged >/=40 years were enrolled. Data were collected by questionnaire on: sociodemographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, smoking [waterpipe and cigarette] and nicotine dependence. ANOVA, Student, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used when applicable and logistic regression analysis was carried out. Previous waterpipe smoking [OR = 6.4], previous mixed smoking [OR = 38.03] and current mixed smoking [OR = 7.68] were significantly associated with chronic bronchitis [P < 0.001 for all] but current exclusive waterpipe smoking was not [OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 0.74-4.72]. Current waterpipe dependence was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis [OR = 3.74, P < 0.001]. After adjustment for covariates/confounders, ever waterpipe smoking > 20 WP-years [P < 0.001] was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis
Salameh, P., Waked, M., Khoury, F., Akiki, Z., Nasser, Z. et al. (2012). Waterpipe smoking and dependence are associated with chronic bronchitis: a case-control study in Lebanon. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/118498
EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 18 (10), 996 -1004, 2012
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