|Title:||Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan|
|Authors:||Ul Haq, N.|
|Abstract:||Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 10 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 [SD 119] ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 [SD 54] ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination [> 150 ppb]. Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination|
|Appears in Collections:||EMRO Journal Articles (EMHJ)|
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