Smokeless tobacco use in Pakistan and its association with oropharyngeal cancer
AbstractSmokeless tobacco [ST], wtclefy used in Pakistan, poses a high risk for oral cancer. Our hospital-based data illustrate that oropharyngeal cancer [9.9%] is the second leading malignancy after breast cancer [16.1%], and is significantly higher than in other Member States of the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Region. Urdu-speaking communities had a proportionately higher rate of oropharyngeal cancer [20.4%], followed by Balochis [19.9%], Sindhis [16.8%], Punjabis [11.7%] and Pashtuns [9.6%]. Association of oropharyngeal cancer with ST use was four times higher relative to no history of tobacco use after adjusting for age, ethnicity and gender. Our findings also show a predominance of this cancer among males relative to females and one-third of the reported cases occurred among individuals under 40 years. These findings have significant social impact, indicating the need for urgent intervention against the use of ST
Bile, K.M., Shaikh, J.A., Afridi, H.U.R. & Khan, Y. (2010). Smokeless tobacco use in Pakistan and its association with oropharyngeal cancer. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/118015
EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 16 (Supp.), 24-30, 2010
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WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, fourth session, Punta del Este, Uruguay, 15-20 November 2010 (FCTC/COP/4/DIV/6, 2010)
Решения Рамочная конвенция ВОЗ по борьбе против табака, Конференция Сторон Рамочной конвенции ВОЗ по борьбе против табака, четвертая сессия, Пунта-дель-Эсте, Уругвай, 15–20 ноября 2010 г. (FCTC/COP/4/DIV/6, 2010)