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Collection's Items (Sorted by Submit Date in Descending order): 1 to 20 of 2588
Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tehran adults: a population-based study
Fazizi, F.; Esmaillzadeh, A.; Mirmiran, P. ( 2004 )

The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed in 3622 males and 5025 females aged 20-70 years. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height and waist-to-hip ratios were calculated. Obese men had a higher risk of hypertension, high total cholesterol [TC], high triglycerides [TG], high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] levels than non-obese men. Centrally obese men were more susceptible to high TG, hypertension and high TC. Obese women had a higher chance of being hypertensive and having high total TC, high TG, high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels than non-obese females. Centrally obese women had higher odds for high TG and low HDL-C. There is a need for education about lifestyle change in the country

Dietary fat and breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: a case-control study
Al Othaimeen, A.; Ezzat, A.; Mohamed, G.; Muammar, T.; Al Madouj, A. ( 2004 )

A case-control study investigated the association between dietary fat and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women attending a specialist hospital in Riyadh. Women with breast carcinoma [n= 499] newly diagnosed between 1996-2002, and control women [n = 498] randomly selected from patients' attendants and relatives, completed a food frequency questionnaire. Serum levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol were measured. A significant positive association was found between risk of breast cancer and intake of fats, protein and calories. Adjusted odds ratios for the highest quartile of intake versus the lowest were 2.43 for saturated fat, 2.25 for animal protein, 2.12 for polyunsaturated fat, 1.88 for cholesterol and 2.69 for total energy from dietary intake. For serum triglycerides the adjusted odds ratio was 2.16 for the highest quartile

Knowledge, attitudes and sources of information on breastfeeding among medical professionals in Baghdad
Al Nassaj, H.H.; Al Ward, N.J.A.; Al Awqati, N.A. ( 2004 )

A questionnaire to assess doctors' knowledge, attitudes and training about breastfeeding was answered by 320 medical students, 75 resident doctors and 50 general practitioners in Baghdad, Iraq. Although attitudes towards breastfeeding were generally positive, less than 50% of medics had adequate scores on knowledge questions [>/= 50% correct]. Most general practitioners [86.0%] agreed that breast-feeding was the preferred type of feeding compared with only 58.4% of medical students and 57.3% of resident doctors. General practitioners who had been on training courses scored better than those who had not. The main sources of breastfeeding information were community medicine and paediatric courses and the main modes of breastfeeding instruction were lectures and clinical sessions. Medical school curricula and residency training do not adequately prepare physicians for their role in breastfeeding promotion

Urinary iodine and other iodine deficiency indicators in a sample of school-age children in Egypt
El Mougi, F.A.; Abdel Ghaffar, S.; Fayek, N.A.F.; Mohammed, M.S. ( 2004 )

Sufficient data relating urinary iodine excretion in children to other iodine deficiency indicators are lacking in Egypt. We assayed urinary iodine concentration and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], thyroglobulin, free triiodothyronine [T3] and free tetraiodothyronine in 99 school-aged Egyptian children. Goitre was found in 25 children. Median urinary iodine concentration was 70 micro g/L. We found mild iodine deficiency [50-99 micro g/L] in 60.6% of the children and moderate to severe deficiency [< 50 micro g/L] in 31.3%.The latter showed a high frequency of goitre and elevated mean serum free T3, TSH and thyroglobulin levels. Individual urinary iodine excretion rates vary, therefore these other indicators could help in screening for iodine deficiency at an individual level, especially in moderate to severe deficiency

Survey of dietary habits of in-school adolescents in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic
Bashour, H.N. ( 2004 )

This study aimed to describe dietary habits of Syrian adolescents attending secondary schools in Damascus and the surrounding areas. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 3507 students in 2001. A stratified, 2-stage r and om cluster sample was used to sample the students. The consumption pattern of food items during the previous week was described. More than 50% of the students said that they had not consumed green vegetables and more than 35% had not consumed meat. More than 35% said that they consumed cheese and milk at least once a day. Only 11.8% consumed fruit 3 times or more daily. Potential determinants of the pattern of food consumption were analyzed. Weight control practices and other eating habits were also described

Multidisciplinary intervention for reducing malnutrition among children in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Sheikholeslam, R.; Kimiagar, M.; Siasi, F.; Abdollahi, Z.; Jazayeri, A.; Keyghobadi, K.; Ghaffarpoor, M.; Noroozi, F.; Kalantari, M.; Minaei, N.; Eslami, F.; Hormozdyari, H. ( 2004 )

A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce protein-energy malnutrition among children in rural areas was piloted in 3 provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Based on an initial situation analysis, a range of interventions were implemented through local nongovernmental organizations, including nutrition, health and literacy education for mothers, improved growth monitoring and fostering rural cooperatives and income generation schemes. Malnutrition before and after the intervention [in 1996 and 1999] was assessed using anthropometric measurements of r and om samples of children aged 6-35 months in control and intervention areas. Three years into the intervention, all indicators of malnutrition had consistently decreased in all intervention areas and the prevalence of underweight and stunting was significantly lower. Control areas showed a mixed pattern of small increases and decreases in malnutrition indicators

An intervention programme for improving the nutritional status of children aged 2-5 years in Alexandria
Ghoneim, E.H.; Hassan, M.H.A.; Amine, E.K. ( 2004 )

We assessed the effect of a selected intervention on the nutritional status of 2-5-year-old children in day care centres. Using a longitudinal prospective pretest/post-test intervention design, 974 children from 3 day care centres in Alexandria were followed for 1 year. Anthropometric measurements and 3-day 24-hour recall data were gathered at base line and dietary intake was calculated and compared with recommended daily allowances. An intervention programme was implemented through the establishment of kitchens in the 3 centres, provision of 2 meals/day, nutrition education for parents and training of supervisors. Baseline data revealed deficient intake of most nutrients especially calcium, calories, vitamin C and iron. Post-intervention test revealed improvement in mothers' nutrition knowledge and the percentage of anaemic children decreased from 47.3% to 14.2%. A decrease in the percentage of underweight, stunted and wasted was also observed. The cost of the programme per child per year was US$ 20.5

Nutritional assessment of lactating women in Shiraz in relation to recommended dietary allowances
Ayatollahi, S.M.T. ( 2004 )

Tables of food frequency and nutrient intake were created for a r and om sample of 266 lactating women from different areas of Shiraz city, Islamic Republic of Iran. Women were interviewed at home in 1998 and nutrient intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall. On average, daily consumption was 2 servings of dairy foods, 4 of bread/rice, 2 of vegetables and 3 of fruits; weekly consumption was 5 servings of meat and 3 of legumes. Estimated average daily energy intake was 2250 kcal. Protein and vitamin C intake were significantly higher than United States recommended dietary allowances [RDA], while iron and calcium intake were significantly lower. Protein intake was insufficient among 9.0% of women, calcium in 35.7%, iron in 18.8% and vitamin C in 15.0%

Is stored expressed breast milk an alternative for working Egyptian mothers?
Ezz El Din, Z.M.; Abdel Ghaffar, S.; El Gabry, E.K.; Fahmi, W.A.; Bedair, R.F. ( 2004 )

Expression and storage of breast milk is way to maintain breastfeeding when mother and infant are separated, if the nutritional value can be conserved. Three expressed breast milk samples were collected from 61 healthy lactating mothers in Cairo, Egypt, for determination of total protein, fat, lactose and zinc content, as well as vitamins C, A and E concentrations. One sample was analysed immediately without storage, 1 after storage for 24 hours in a refrigerator [4 degrees C] and 1 after storage for 1 week in a home freezer [-4 degrees C to -8 degrees C]. Refrigeration and freezing of breast milk caused a statistically significant decline in levels of vitamins C, A and E. Nevertheless, the values of all nutrients were still within the international reference ranges for mature breast milk

Iron status of babies born to iron-deficient anaemic mothers in an Iranian hospital
Emamghorashi, F.; Heidari, T. ( 2004 )

We investigated the relation between maternal anaemia and neonatal iron status in 97 mothers and their babies. Haemoglobin [Hb], serum iron, total iron binding capacity and serum ferritin were determined. Mothers were divided into 3 groups: iron-deficient anaemic [22.7%], non-anaemic iron-deficient [27.8%] and non-anaemic non-iron-deficient [49.5%]. There was no significant difference in the mean ages of the 3 groups but there were significant differences in relation to parity, Hb and serum ferritin levels. There was no significant difference in the mean value of serum iron or total iron binding capacity among the neonates of the 3 groups. Babies of iron-deficient anaemic mothers had significantly lower levels of serum ferritin [115.3 ng/mL] than nonanaemic, non-iron-deficient mothers [204.8 ng/mL] but not compared with the non-anaemic iron-deficient group. Maternal iron deficiency may affect iron status in their babies and predispose them to iron deficiency

Can mass media prevent AIDS: the need for well planned behaviour change communication programmes
El Kame, F.M. ( 1996 )

This paper reviews two ways of media utilization: to provide regular entertainment programmes and news events; and to relay specific messages for the purpose of influencing attitudes and behaviour. Obstacles to the effective use of the media for attitude and behaviour change are outlined and communication and training activities in order to overcome these obstacles are recommended

Maternal anaemia and its impact on perinatal outcome in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan
Lone, F.W.; Qureshi, R.N.; Emmanuel, F. ( 2004 )

Maternal anaemia is a common problem in pregnancy, particularly in developing countries. We investigated the relationship between maternal anaemia and perinatal outcome in a cohort of 629 pregnant women from October 2001 to 2002. Of these, 313 were anaemic [haemoglobin < 11 g/L]. Perinatal outcomes included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low Apgar scores and intrauterine fetal death. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight among the anaemic women was 4 and 1.9 times more respectively than the non-anaemic women. The neonates of anaemic women also had 1.8 times increased risk having low Apgar scores at 1 minute and there was a 3.7 greater risk of intrauterine fetal death among the anaemic women than the non-anaemic women

Food safety: current situation, unaddressed issues and the emerging priorities
Elmi, M. ( 2004 )

This paper reviews the topic of food safety with reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The differing views of food safety and the current situation with regard to ensuring food safety are presented. Also discussed are some of the unaddressed issues and challenges related to food safety. The new conditions that have arisen in the modern world which have facilitated the emergence of pathogens are presented, such as changes in animal husb and ry, changes in international trade and travel, lifestyle and consumer changes. The urgent need for action in order to reduce the risk of microbiological and chemical foodborne diseases is emphasized. The food chain starts from farm and ends at fork; controlling this complex process requires an integrated approach and a responsible authority to oversee it in order to protect and promote food safety

Overweight and obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: can we control it?
Musaiger, A.O. ( 2004 )

Obesity has become an epidemic problem worldwide, and in the Eastern Mediterranean Region the status of overweight has reached an alarming level. A prevalence of 3%-9% overweight and obesity has been recorded among preschool children, while that among schoolchildren was 12%-25%. A marked increase in obesity generally has been noted among adolescents, ranging from 15% to 45%. In adulthood, women showed a higher prevalence of obesity [35%-75%] than men [30%-60%]. Several factors, such as change in dietary habits, socioeconomic factors, inactivity and multiparity [among women] determine obesity in this Region. There is an urgent need for national programmes to prevent and control obesity in the countries of the Region

Noncommunicable diseases: risk factors and regional strategies for prevention and care
Khatib, O. ( 2004 )

Noncommunicable diseases [NCDs] are a major disease burden in the Region. Many of the risk factors are related to lifestyle and can be controlled. Physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable intake, high fast food consumption and high cholesterol are predominant causes of cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Overweight and obesity can lead to metabolic changes and raise the risk of NCDs, including heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Three main strategies are proposed to deal with the problem: estimate need and advocate for action; develop national policies, strategies and plans for prevention and care; promote and implement community participation in prevention and care. NCDs are preventable using available knowledge; solutions are effective and highly cost-effective

Food fortification: good to have or need to have?
Verster, A. ( 2004 )

Only very small quantities of vitamins and minerals are needed for human health but deficiencies can have disproportionately large, often life-threatening, effects. Micronutrient deficiencies lead to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection in poorly nourished populations. Fortification of staple foods is the cheapest, most efficient and most effective way to supply large populations with essential micronutrients. This paper reviews the case for fortification of flour supplies with iron and folic acid and concludes that it is the best way to provide daily doses of these nutrients to populations in developing countries, especially for women of child-bearing age

Experiences in the prevention, control and elimination of iodine deficiency disorders: a regional perspective
Azizi, F.; Mehran, L. ( 2004 )

Before 1987, iodine deficiency was not considered an issue of major importance in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region [EMR]. Progress began with a systematic national study of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders [IDD] in the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1983. Following a major review of the prevalence of IDD in member states, Guidelines for national programmes for the control of iodine deficiency disorders in the EMR were published by the World Health Organization [WHO] in 1988.This paper discusses progress towards elimination of iodine deficiency by reviewing the status of IDD in the countries of EMR and programmes for prevention and control of IDD with particular reference to the Islamic Republic of Iran, the first country to be declared IDD-free by WHO

Iron deficiency anaemia-an old enemy
Bagchi, K. ( 2004 )

Anaemia has remained a widespread public health problem in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Prevalence figures vary from a low of 17% to a high of over 70% among preschool children; from 14% to 42% among adolescents and from 11% to over 40% among women of childbearing age. Although the prevalence of anaemia has often been used as a proxy indicator for iron deficiency anaemia, this approach is not valid in settings where the etiology of anaemia is complex or unknown or where other micronutrient deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin A can co-exist. An integrated, multifactorial and multisectoral approach has to be adopted comprising targeted interventions to provide iron supplements to especially vulnerable segments of the population, in particular pregnant women; food-based approaches to increase iron intake through food fortification and dietary diversification; and other measures combined with iron interventions where other causes of anaemia are prevalent

Nutrition in humanitarian crises
Bagchi, K.; Musani, A.; Tomeh, L.; Taha, A. ( 2004 )

It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations.To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved

Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries
Sheikholeslam, R.; Abdollahi, Z.; Haghighi, F.N. ( 2004 )

Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health-- and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals

Collection's Items (Sorted by Submit Date in Descending order): 1 to 20 of 2588