Municipal solid waste management in middle- and lower-income countries : report
AbstractMost major cities in middle and lower-income countries face increasing difficulties in solid waste management. Energetic change stems from a strong public desire for improvements in social and economic wellbeing and in public health protection. While uncollected waste presents the greater hazard. a poor history of waste disposal provides the simpler focal political issue. The acquisition of new disposal sites is becoming as protracted in many middle- and lower-income countries as it is in many prosperous nations. Waste service and improvements are linked to national prosperity. Affordability, or the upper limit of public willingness to pay for an adequate waste service, in cities in a wide range of prosperity appears to be similar at around 0.5% of the prevailing annual gross national product (GNP) per capita. This "0.5% GNP" criterion will be examined and discussed further in this report. The 0.5% GNP value, together with projected growth of prosperity, a locally suitable framework and accountable management, can form the basis of a business-like waste service improvement plan. Such a plan, executed in the medium term of, say, 20 years, can yield an economically sustainable public benefit. This report has been prepared to stimulate international debate on the ways to promote political will to improve solid waste management, in a financially sustainable manner, in many cities around the world
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (1996). Municipal solid waste management in middle- and lower-income countries : report. Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108115
DescriptionEUR/ICP/TECH 02 02 01
Gov't Doc #EUR/ICP/TECH 02 02 01
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