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Title: Financial and operational factors influencing the provision of municipal solid waste services in large cities : report / prepared by Colin Macfarlane; coordinated by Philip Rushbrook
Authors: Macfarlane, Colin
Rushbrook, Philip
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe
Issue Date: 1998
Publisher: Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe
Language: English
Abstract: The management of urban solid waste is one of a number of essential public services provided directly or on behalf of local government. The allocated funding reflects both the need and the relative importance perceived by the public to be attached to each service. In low-income countries, the urban public is often apathetic about waste service, though, by its nature, it typically consumes a substantial proportion of urban revenues to provide even a bare minimum level of services. Local governments are loath to augment taxes to improve services for which there is little public enthusiasm. Reform can be expected to be gradual. Comparable attitudes and conditions prevailed in the rapidly growing cities of western Europe and North America until the second half of the 19th century. A strong growth of social reform together with respected and influential leaders eventually led to political changes and the assured public support needed to pay for service improvements. However, the process was lengthy. Several decades were required to achieve a reasonably uniform, good standard of waste collection and transportation, while substantial reform of disposal languished a further 80 years. In contrast to low-income countries, the proportion of urban revenues presently consumed by waste service in high-income countries is typically relatively modest. It seems reasonable that urban waste service expenditure is constrained by the state of prosperity. With exceptions the data suggest that large cities across a wide range of incomes are willing to spend up to 0.5% of the prevailing annual gross national product per capita. Greater expenditure is likely to meet increasing reluctance because the perceived social benefits do not warrant additional cost. The most effective and least costly means of improving urban waste services, especially in lower-income countries, is by the appointment of trained and motivated managers employing strict cost control, and accompanied by supportive elected representatives. Substantial improvements in urban cleanliness can often be identified by the selection of more appropriate waste collection methods and transportation vehicles, a better deployment of existing cleansing staff, and better designed collection routes to save time and money
Description: EUR/ICP/ENHA 01 01 01
English only
10 p.
Subject: Waste Management
Refuse Disposal
Financing, Government
Cities
Environmental Health
metadata.dc.subject.other: Environment and Public Health
Gov't Doc #: EUR/ICP/ENHA 01 01 01
URI: http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108114
Appears in Collections:Technical documents



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