WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: raising taxes on tobacco [Russian]
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2015 )
Guidelines for healthy housing
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Ranson, Ray P. ( 1988 )
Beyond bias: exploring the cultural contexts of health and well-being measurement. First meeting of the expert group Copenhagen, Denmark, 15–16 January 2015 (Rus)
( 2015 )
Настоящее первое совместное совещание экспертов по культурным контекстам здоровья и благополучия состоялось в Европейском региональном бюро ВОЗ 15–16 января 2015 г. В рамках принятия европейской политики в поддержку здоровья и благополучия Здоровье-2020 государства-члены ВОЗ согласовали схему измерений для индикаторной оценки и отчетности по аспектам объективного и субъективного благополучия. Однако остаются практические трудности, в частности в связи с влиянием культурных факторов на благополучие и измерение его параметров. Целями совещания было выработать рекомендации относительно того, как учитывать воздействие факторов культуры на здоровье и благополучие и как распространять результаты анализа данных по благополучию среди стран настолько разнородного региона, каким является Европа. В настоящем отчете приведены подробные рекомендации группы экспертов в отношении каждой из вышеуказанных целей.
Beyond bias: exploring the cultural contexts of health and well-being measurement. First meeting of the expert group Copenhagen, Denmark, 15–16 January 2015.
( 2015 )
This first expert group meeting on the cultural contexts of health and well-being was convened by the WHO Regional Office for Europe on 15–16 January 2015. As part of the adoption of Health 2020, the European policy for health and well-being, WHO Member States agreed to a measurement framework, which would measure and report on objective and subjective well-being. However, practical challenges remain, particularly with respect to the influence of cultural factors on well-being and well-being measurement. The aim of this meeting was to provide advice on how to consider the impact of culture on health and well-being, and how to communicate findings from well-being data across such a culturally diverse region as Europe. This report outlines the detailed recommendations made by the expert group in relation to each of these objectives.
Socioeconomic, demographic, spatial and ethnic inequalities in environmental exposure in the municipalities of Fushë Kosovë/Kosovo Polje and Obiliq/Obilić. An exploration of social and environmental vulnerability based on field survey data.
( 2015 )
This report gives a first assessment of the scale of environmental inequalities in Obiliq/Obilić and Fushë Kosovë/Kosovo Polje, and the role of socioeconomic, demographic, spatial and ethnic determinants in creating these inequalities. The analysis is based on a field survey and focuses on environmental vulnerabilities in relation to housing, water/hygiene/sanitation, environmental conditions and affordability constraints. The findings show that there are marked inequalities in environmental disadvantage. The greatest inequalities are associated with socioeconomic and ethnic determinants, but spatial and demographic determinants also play a role. Most frequently, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian (RAE) ethnicity, as well as low income and poor education, are identified as the strongest determinants of increased environmental disadvantage. Yet a range of environmental disadvantages is identified that affect large population groups as well. The report helps to identify potential target groups for social and environmental action and presents a range of examples of the variability of environmental inequalities and vulnerabilities. It shows how environmental equality and vulnerability can be assessed in methodological terms, and emphasizes the need for detailed analysis of inequalities and the most vulnerable population groups before action targeted at specific groups is determined.
Ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Latvia
( 2015 )
In the context of a multicounty study on ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) in the WHO European Region, this study seeks to contribute to strengthening health services delivery by identifying possible improvements to effectively prevent, diagnose and treat ACSCs in primary health care settings, and by deriving contextualized and actionable policy recommendations for health services delivery transformation. This report contains the results of desk research, data analysis and a country stakeholder meeting aimed at identifying potential opportunities that enable ACSCs to be effectively prevented, diagnosed and treated in a primary health care setting in Latvia.
Effective approaches to drinkingwater quality surveillance. Meeting report.
( 2015 )
The meeting was organized by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health of the WHO Regional Office for Europe in support to the implementation of the Protocol on Water and Health to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. The programme of work for 2014-2016 under the Protocol prioritizes supporting cost-effective and risk-based drinking-water quality surveillance approaches. The objectives of the meeting were to introduce key elements of risk-based surveillance, review countries’ current approaches, experiences and challenges in water quality surveillance, identify needs to build capacities for strengthening surveillance systems. The meeting recognized the value of and need for risk-based approaches in standard-setting and drinkingwater quality surveillance as it leads to targeted and resource-effective approaches and thus to better protection of public health. Regulations need to allow for flexible surveillance schemes that are based on local risk assessments. The outcomes of water safety plans, developed and implemented by water suppliers, inform local decision-making in terms of priority risks and direct the scope of surveillance efforts.
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ.
( 2014 )
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ. Буклети иловагӣ
( 2014 )
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ. Қисми «Масъалаҳои иҷтимоӣ»
( 2014 )
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ. Қисми «Масъалаҳои худтаъминкунӣ»
( 2014 )
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ. Иттилооти заминавӣ
( 2014 )
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ. Қисми «Саломатӣ»
( 2014 )
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ. Қисми «Васеъкунии ҳуқуқҳо ва имкониятҳо»
( 2014 )
Тавонбахшӣ дар сатҳи ҷамоат: Дастур оид ба ТСҶ. Қисмати «Маориф»
( 2014 )
Health Systems in Transition; Ukraine; Health system review
Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica ( 2015 )
This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population’s health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3% in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system
The European Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020
( 2015 )
Mental disorders are one of the top public health challenges in the WHO European Region, affecting about 25% of the population every year. In all countries, mental health problems are much more prevalent among those who are most deprived. The WHO European Region therefore faces diverse challenges affecting both the (mental) well-being of the population and the provision and quality of care for people with mental health problems. The European Mental Health Action Plan focuses on seven interlinked objectives and proposes effective actions to strengthen mental health and well-being. Investing in mental health is essential for the sustainability of health and socio-economic policies in the European Region.The European Mental Health Action Plan corresponds to the four priority areas of the European policy framework for health and wellbeing, Health 2020, and will contribute directly to its implementation. The Action Plan has been developed in close consultation with Member States, experts and NGOs, guided by the Standing Committee of the WHO Regional Committee for Europe. The Regional Director for Europe and the Regional Office thanks all who have contributed to this Action Plan. The resolution adopting this Action Plan can be found in annex 4.
Economic crisis, health systems and health in Europe. Country experiences
Maresso, Anna; Mladovsky, Philipa; Thomson, Sarah; Sagan, Anna; Karanikolos, Marina; Richardson, Erica; Cylus, Jonathan; Evetovits, Tamás; Jowett, Matthew; Figueras, Josep; Kluge, Hans ( 2015 )
Survey on Adverse Childhood Experiences in Montenegro. National Survey Report
( 2014 )
The Survey on Adverse Childhood Experiences in Montenegro included a representative sample of first-year university students (n = 1 600) in Montenegro from seven cities. The survey took into account the gender distribution of students [833 females (53.2%) and 732 (46.8%) males, whose mean age (±SD) is 19.9 ± 1.9 years]. The survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), the characteristics of health-risk behaviours and to explore the associations between ACEs and health-risk behaviours. Results showed that the most commonly reported ACEs were emotional abuse (30.4%) and emotional neglect (27%). Males were more emotionally neglected (38% of all males) than females (18.1% of all females). Physical abuse was reported by 24.3% of the respondents, sexual abuse 3.9%, while physical neglect was reported by 18.8%. As for household dysfunction, witnessing the mother being treated violently (24%) and alcohol misuse (11.9%) in the family were the most common. The most common health-risk behaviours reported were smoking, risky sexual behaviour (more than three lifetime sexual partners) and alcohol and drug abuse. The study shows a strong-graded incremental response between the number of ACEs and the likelihood of harmful alcohol and drug abuse, multiple sexual partners, smoking and attempted suicide. These results show that there is a need for a strategy for the prevention of child maltreatment and other ACEs.
Support tool to assess health information systems and develop and strengthen health information strategies
( 2015 )
Постоянный комитет Регионального комитета на своем совещании в декабре 2013 г. предложил Европейскому региональному бюро ВОЗ разработать практичный вспомогательный инструмент для государств-членов. Инструмент призван помочь государствам-членам в развитии и совершенствовании их национальных систем информации здравоохранения путем разработки национальной стратегии информации здравоохранения как средства поддержки в осуществлении политики Здоровье-2020. В его основу легли имеющиеся инструменты, разработанные под эгидой Сети измерения показателей здоровья ВОЗ. Полноценная медико-санитарная информация вносит важный вклад в проведение политики в области общественного здравоохранения: она помогает государствам-членам выявлять приоритетные направления действий в рамках политики Здоровье-2020 и оценивать эффективность стратегий и вмешательств, относящихся к данной политике.