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Socioeconomic, demographic, spatial and ethnic inequalities in environmental exposure in the municipalities of Fushë Kosovë/Kosovo Polje and Obiliq/Obilić. An exploration of social and environmental vulnerability based on field survey data.
( 2015 )
This report gives a first assessment of the scale of environmental inequalities in Obiliq/Obilić and Fushë Kosovë/Kosovo Polje, and the role of socioeconomic, demographic, spatial and ethnic determinants in creating these inequalities. The analysis is based on a field survey and focuses on environmental vulnerabilities in relation to housing, water/hygiene/sanitation, environmental conditions and affordability constraints. The findings show that there are marked inequalities in environmental disadvantage. The greatest inequalities are associated with socioeconomic and ethnic determinants, but spatial and demographic determinants also play a role. Most frequently, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian (RAE) ethnicity, as well as low income and poor education, are identified as the strongest determinants of increased environmental disadvantage. Yet a range of environmental disadvantages is identified that affect large population groups as well. The report helps to identify potential target groups for social and environmental action and presents a range of examples of the variability of environmental inequalities and vulnerabilities. It shows how environmental equality and vulnerability can be assessed in methodological terms, and emphasizes the need for detailed analysis of inequalities and the most vulnerable population groups before action targeted at specific groups is determined.
Addressing the social determinants of health: the urban dimension and the role of local government
( 2012 )
This report summarizes the evidence on the social determinants of health and the built environment with special reference to the role of local government across countries in the WHO European Region. It draws on the findings of the global Commission on Social Determinants of Health and the European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. Through its leadership, local government has a significant role to play in working across sectors and with civil society partners to support and accelerate action to address the social determinants of health and the causes of health inequalities. The evidence presented here provides the background to the complementary report Healthy cities tackle the social determinants of inequities in health: a framework for action.
Smart governance for health and well-being: the evidence
Kickbusch, Ilona; Gleicher, David ( 2014 )
Governance for health describes the attempts of governments and other actors to steer communities, whole countries or even groups of countries in the pursuit of health as integral to well-being. This study tracks recent governance innovations to address the priority determinants of health and categorizes them into five strategic approaches to smart governance for health. It relates the emergence of joint action by the health and non-health sectors, public and private actors and citizens, all of whom have an increasing role to play in achieving seminal changes in 21st century societies. The chapters presented here were initially commissioned as papers to provide the evidence base for the new European policy framework for health and well-being, Health 2020. Calling for a health-in-all-policies, whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach, Health 2020 uses governance as a lens through which to view all technical areas of health.
Governance for health equity
Brown, Chris; Harrison, Dominic; Burns, Harry; Ziglio, Erio ( 2013 )
This report is one of 13 task group reports which underpin the work of the European review of the social determinants of health and the health divide. The study was commissioned by the WHO Regional Office for Europe to inform the development of Health 2020. With its distilled lessons, this publication is of vital importance for the WHO European Region’s 53 Member States and their efforts to implement the equity goals of Health 2020. It provides a situation analysis of why policies and interventions to address social determinants of health and health inequities succeed or fail. It also discusses important features of governance and delivery systems that increase likely success in reducing inequities. A systems checklist for governing for health equity as a whole-of-government approach is put forward. This is intended for further discussion and as a framework to support strengthening how countries govern for health equity in practice, through action on social determinants.
Tackling health inequities: from concepts to practice, The experience of Västra Götaland
( 2014 )
Despite remarkable health gains, inequities persist between and within countries in the WHO European Region and Sweden is no exception. Actions to effectively tackle health inequities need to be carried out at all levels of government. Regions have a key role to play in tackling health inequities in that they are close to their populations and have the power and skills to develop efficient public health policies that may contribute in reducing health disparities by changing the distribution of social determinants of health. The report is about the process that the Region of Västra Götaland followed to mainstream the health equity dimension in its regional health plan and which resulted in the Action Plan for Health Equity in Region Västra Götaland. This publication is an account of the factors that made it possible, but it also presents a fair account of the obstacles encountered and the measures to overcome them. The report is a good illustration of how whole-of-government and whole-ofsociety approaches proposed by Health 2020 have been implemented in a real setting.
Socioeconomic differences in health, health behaviour and access to health care in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine / by Marc Suhrcke ... [et al.]
Suhrcke, Marc; Walters, Sarah; Mazzuco, Stefano; Pomerleau, Joceline; McKee, Martin; Haerpfer, Christian W; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2008 )
Healthy cities tackle the social determinants of inequities in health: a framework for action
Ritsatakis, Anna ( 2012 )
This report provides practical guidance for taking action to address health inequalities at the local level. It offers helpful explanations of key concepts and offers examples of how to go about making a case and deciding which interventions to use to tackle more effectively the social determinants of health and increase commitment to addressing the causes of inequalities. The framework for action supports whole-of-government and whole-ofsociety approaches. The main evidence underpinning this publication can be found in the complementary report: Addressing the social determinants of health: the urban dimension and the role of local government.
Review and reorientation of the “Programme for active health protection of mothers and children” for greater health equity in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
( 2015 )
This publication presents the process of and lessons learned from the review and reorientation of a programme for active health protection of mothers and children for greater health equity, with an explicit but not exclusive focus on the Roma population, carried out in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Using the methodological guide on integrating equity into health strategies, programmes and activities developed by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality of Spain, the analysis of selected services within the programme shows that Roma and rural women benefit less than women from urban areas and with more education. Barriers and facilitating factors for using the services were related to their availability, accessibility and acceptability, contact with services and effectiveness of coverage. The review showed that barriers and facilitating factors were strongly related to the social determinants of health, both intermediary and structural. The analysis of the programme’s context shows that most of the existing policy documents support its implementation and a number of mechanisms for social participation of target populations. Several facilitating factors were created and incorporated into the new proposed programme to improve the response to the health needs of all women in general and particularly the most vulnerable, such as Roma. The study concluded that the reorientation process is a systematic evaluation process, useful as a continuous cycle of improvement that could enhance the equity, effectiveness and quality of health programmes.