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Better non-communicable disease outcomes: challenges and opportunities for health systems. Tajikistan Country Assessment.
Akkazieva, Baktygul; Tello, Juan; Smith, Barton; Jakab, Melitta; Krasovsky, Konstantin; Sautenkova, Nina; Yuldasheva, Lola; Shoismatuloeva, Mekhri ( 2015 )
Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are the predominant cause of death in Tajikistan, with a growing burden of ischemic heart disease, strokes and cirrhosis between 1990 and 2010. Considering this, this report focuses on cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors, such as hypertension and poor nutrition; it is estimated that 40% of the Tajik population is overweight and 9% is obese. Other risk factors such as diabetes and tobacco use are also analysed. While Tajikistan has made some progress in implementing anti-smoking policies and reducing the harmful use of alcohol, opportunities such as better enforcement and monitoring of legislation exist. Signifi cant challenges also remain for coverage of core individual services, especially in the eff ective diagnosis and management of key cardiovascular disease conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes. This report identifi es key health system challenges that prevent greater coverage of core noncommunicable diseases interventions and services, and proposes three strategic recommendations to accelerate gains in cardiovascular diseases outcomes.

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Better non-communicable disease outcomes: challenges and opportunities for health systems. Hungary Country Assessment: Focus on diabetes
Vokó, Zoltán; Beran, David; Pusztai, Zsófia; Bak Pedersen, Hanne; Evetovits, Tamás; Szigeti, Szabolcs ( 2014 )
Abstract

This report reviews health system challenges and opportunities in Hungary to scale up core services for the prevention, early diagnosis and management of diabetes. Diabetes is used in the report as a lens to assess the eff ectiveness of the health system in addressing the NCD burden. Although NCD mortality in general has been decreasing over the past twenty years, the prevalence of diabetes remains high and is growing. The report found good progress implementing innovative intersectorial nutrition policies including the Public Health Product Tax. At the same time, core individual services such as early detection and proactive management of diabetes and its complications require further eff orts. The main barrier to better diabetes and NCD control in Hungary was found to be the lack of citizen empowerment; the population generally has a low level of health literacy and lacks the knowledge and skills to manage their own health. Other problems identifi ed include a mismatch between the incentive system and the requirements for eff ective diabetes management, with current measures focusing on processes rather than outcomes. These challenges need to be addressed within a context of a shortage of human resources and a lack of standardized training in diabetes adapted to diff erent cadres of health personnel. The report ends with six strategic recommendations to address these challenges.

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Better noncommunicable disease outcomes challenges and opportunities for health systems , No. 4 Republic of Moldova Country Assessment
Skarphedinsdottir, Maria; Smith, Barton; Ferrario, Alessandra; Zues, Olga; Ciobanu, Angela; Ţîrdea, Marcela; Domente, Silviu; Habicht, Jarno ( 2014 )
Abstract

Like many countries, the Republic of Moldova faces a growing NCD burden. This report examines the challenges and opportunities faced in the Republic of Moldova in order to accelerate improvement in NCD outcomes. In recent years, the Government of the Republic of Moldova has implemented a number of important reforms that have increased effi ciency and equity in resource allocation, and have provided incentives to improve service delivery, including for NCDs. Challenges include further scale up and implementation of new initiatives in the area of NCD risk factor management. Major gains can be made through relatively low-cost public health and primary health care interventions. These include, among others, strengthening tobacco, alcohol, and dietary polices and their implementation, improving detection and treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, strengthening clinical protocols, and improving rational prescribing practice. This report examines in depth the health system challenges and opportunities for improved prevention and control of NCDs and concludes with policy recommendations for the consideration of policy makers in the Republic of Moldova.

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Better non-communicable disease outcomes: challenges and opportunities for health systems. Kyrgyzstan Country Assessment: Focus on cardiovascular disease
Jakab, Melitta; Smith, Barton; Sautenkova, Nina; Abdraimova, Aida; Temirov, Adyl; Kadyralieva, Ryskul; Mukeeva, Suyumjan; Murzakarimovna, Larissa ( 2014 )
Abstract

Cardiovascular mortality in Kyrgyzstan has decreased over the past seven years in part due to impressive health system reforms. However, moving towards the 25 by 25 targets and addressing the sizeable gender gap in premature mortality present a signifi cant challenge. While Kyrgyzstan has made some strides in implementing anti-smoking policies, reducing the harmful eff ects of alcohol, and strengthening nutrition policies, there are still great opportunities through better enforcement and monitoring of legislation. Signifi cant challenges also remain for coverage of core individual services especially in the eff ective diagnosis and management of key cardiovascular disease conditions, such as hypertension, and diabetes. The report identifi es key health system challenges that prevent greater coverage of core NCD interventions and services and proposes three strategic directions to accelerate gains in CVD outcomes.

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Improving the lives of children and young people : case studies from Europe. Volume 3. School
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Barnekow, Vivian; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne; Currie, Candace; Dyson, Alan; Eisenstadt, Naomi; Melhuish, Edward ( 2013 )
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Improving the lives of children and young people : case studies from Europe. Volume 1. Early years
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Barnekow, Vivian; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne; Currie, Candace; Dyson, Alan; Eisenstadt, Naomi; Melhuish, Edward ( 2013 )
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Improving the lives of children and young people : case studies from Europe. Volume 2. Childhood
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Barnekow, Vivian; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne; Currie, Candace; Dyson, Alan; Eisenstadt, Naomi; Melhuish, Edward ( 2013 )
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Young and physically active : a blueprint for making physical activity appealing to youth
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, United Kingdom ( 2012 )
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Reducing harmful use of alcohol : cost-effectiveness of alcohol control strategies in the Republic of Moldova / by Marcela Tirdea ... [et al.]
Tirdea, Marcela; Ciobanu, Angela; Vasiliev, Tudor; Buzdugan, Liliana; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2011 )
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Mapping the status of disease prevention and health promotion at primary health care level in Estonia / edited by Tiia Pertel ... [et al.]
Pertel,Tiia; Koppel, Agris; Kalda, Ruth; Täoemets, Tiina; Vaask, Sirje; Viilup, Janika; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2010 )