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Economic crisis, health systems and health in Europe. Country experiences
Maresso, Anna; Mladovsky, Philipa; Thomson, Sarah; Sagan, Anna; Karanikolos, Marina; Richardson, Erica; Cylus, Jonathan; Evetovits, Tamás; Jowett, Matthew; Figueras, Josep; Kluge, Hans ( 2015 )
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School Environment: Policies and current status
( 2015 )
Abstract

В отчете приведен обзор существующих законов, норм и рекомендаций, направленных на обеспе- чение здоровой окружающей среды в школах и детских садах, информация о неблагоприятных факторах окружающей среды в школах, дизайне, методах и результатах некоторых недавно за- вершенных обследований, а также обзор экспозиции школьников к основным неблагоприятным факторам, включая некоторые загрязнители воздуха внутри помещений, плесень и сырость, недо- статочную интенсивность вентиляции, проблемы в сфере санитарии и гигиены, курение, а также данные об использовании различных способов транспортировки в школу. В то время, как офици- альные документы, направленные на обеспечение здоровой окружающей среды для школьников, приняты в большинстве государств-членов, внедрение и обеспечение соблюдения некоторых норм остается важной проблемой. В некоторых странах необходимы дальнейшие усилия по улучшению санитарных условий в школах, обеспечению адекватной вентиляции, профилактике сырости и плесени, уменьшению источников загрязнения воздуха внутри помещений, соблюдению существу- ющих запретов на курение и продвижению использования активных способов передвижения в школу. Применение гармонизированных методов мониторинга играет ключевую роль для закрытия существующих пробелов в данных, а также выявления и управления неблагоприятными факторами окружающей среды в школах.

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School Environment: Policies and current status
( 2015 )
Abstract

This report includes a summary of existing policies on providing healthy environments in schools and kindergartens, an overview of environmental risk factors in schools, information on design, methods and results of selected recently conducted exposure assessment surveys and a summary of pupils’ exposures to major environmental factors, such as selected indoor air pollutants, mould and dampness and poor ventilation in classrooms, sanitation and hygiene problems, smoking and the use of various modes of transportation to school. While most Member States have comprehensive policies aiming at providing healthy environment for pupils, implementing and enforcing some of these policies is a common challenge. Further efforts are needed to improve school sanitation, provide adequate ventilation, prevent dampness and mould growth, reduce emission of indoor air pollutants, improve enforcement of existing smoking bans, facilitate the use of active transportation modes in some countries. Facilitating the use of harmonized monitoring method is essential for closing existing data gaps, identifying and addressing environmental risk factors in schools.

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Water and sanitation in the WHO European Region: 2014 Highlights
( 2015 )
Abstract

Despite overall high levels of access to improved drinking-water sources and sanitation facilities in the WHO European Region, the 2014 update of the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation shows that there are still people with unmet basic needs in the Region. Significant discrepancies between sub-regions and countries, urban and rural areas as well as wealth-related disparities remain. While 68 million people gained access to improved sanitation between 1990 and 2012, the WHO European Region is not on track to meet the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in 2015. Moreover, the Caucasus and central Asia is the only MDG region globally where access to improved drinking-water sources has declined between 1990 and 2012.

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Building primary care in a changing Europe. Case studies.
Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke G.W.; Hutchinson, Allen; Saltman, Richard B. ( 2015 )
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Assessing chronic disease management in European health systems. Country reports.
Nolte, Ellen; Knai, Cécile ( 2015 )
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Report of the Regional Director on the work of WHO in the European Region in 2012–2013
( 2014 )
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INJURIES IN EUROPE : A CALL FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION
( 2014 )
Abstract

The WHO Global Health Estimates show that 555 000 deaths occurred in the WHO European Region due to injuries and violence in 2011, representing a decline of 26% from 2000. Injuries account for 6.1% of all deaths and are the leading cause of death in people aged 5-49 years. The three leading causes of injury deaths are self-directed violence (123 000), road traffic injuries (92 000) and falls (78 000). There are inequalities in injury deaths in the Region: mortality rates are 2.7 times higher in males than in females and 2.4 times higher in low- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries. When all ages are considered, there has been a convergence in mortality since 2000 between low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries; however this gap has widened for children aged less than 15 years. Public health action is needed to reduce inequalities in injuries in the Region.

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Measurement of and target-setting for well-being : an initiative by the WHO Regional Office for Europe / Second meeting of the expert group Paris, France, 25-26 June 2012
Wismar, Matthias; McKee, Martin; Ernst, Kelly; Srivastava, Divya; Busse, Reinhard; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies ( 2013 )
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Improving the lives of children and young people : case studies from Europe. Volume 3. School
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Barnekow, Vivian; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne; Currie, Candace; Dyson, Alan; Eisenstadt, Naomi; Melhuish, Edward ( 2013 )