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Socioeconomic, demographic, spatial and ethnic inequalities in environmental exposure in the municipalities of Fushë Kosovë/Kosovo Polje and Obiliq/Obilić. An exploration of social and environmental vulnerability based on field survey data.
( 2015 )
This report gives a first assessment of the scale of environmental inequalities in Obiliq/Obilić and Fushë Kosovë/Kosovo Polje, and the role of socioeconomic, demographic, spatial and ethnic determinants in creating these inequalities. The analysis is based on a field survey and focuses on environmental vulnerabilities in relation to housing, water/hygiene/sanitation, environmental conditions and affordability constraints. The findings show that there are marked inequalities in environmental disadvantage. The greatest inequalities are associated with socioeconomic and ethnic determinants, but spatial and demographic determinants also play a role. Most frequently, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian (RAE) ethnicity, as well as low income and poor education, are identified as the strongest determinants of increased environmental disadvantage. Yet a range of environmental disadvantages is identified that affect large population groups as well. The report helps to identify potential target groups for social and environmental action and presents a range of examples of the variability of environmental inequalities and vulnerabilities. It shows how environmental equality and vulnerability can be assessed in methodological terms, and emphasizes the need for detailed analysis of inequalities and the most vulnerable population groups before action targeted at specific groups is determined.
Protecting health in Europe from climate change / edited by Bettina Menne ... [et al.]
Sari Kovats, R; Menne, Bettina; Apfel, Franklin; Racioppi, Francesca; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2008 )
Environmental health indicators for the WHO European Region 3 : survey methods for environmental health assessments : report on the WHO working group meeting, Bonn, 18-19 November 2002
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2003 )
The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office is implementing a project aiming at establishment of an information system to support public health and environmental policies within and across the WHO European Region countries. The 'core' of the system are the Environmental Health Indicators (EHI). The feasibility study of the EHI system identified critical data gaps for which specially organised surveys are needed to supplement the existing statistical data as well as monitoring and surveillance systems. This meeting was convened to agree on the scope of the environment and health (EH) issues for which survey are necessary and to recommend the most appropriate survey methods and tools to enable comparable assessments within and across the countries. The group discussed experiences from large-scale, regularly conducted representative national and international survey instruments to gather information on exposures and associated health effects whose association is supported by a sufficient body of evidence. The Working Group (WG) identified several survey tools on relevant exposures and health effects; indoor air quality; housing; noise; respiratory health and annoyance. These can be used as guidelines in the design of an international EH survey. The group recommended a number of well-established surveys tools, both in the form of questionnaires and objective measurements, and identified several instruments which need further methodological development and expert consultations. Participants agreed on the necessary steps to develop the most appropriate survey design; selection of the methods and tools and their feasibility testing in collaboration with the Member States. The group pointed out that cost-effective instruments suitable for national and international use should be included in the proposal for an EH indicator system within the information platform to be endorsed by the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (Budapest, 2004) for implementation across the WHO European region