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HIV/AIDS IN TAJIKISTAN
Laukamm‐Josten, Ulrich; Lali, Khotenashvili; Baktygul, Akkazieva; Svetlana, Antonyak; Svetlana, Cebotari; Lella, Cosmaro; Sayohat, Hasanova; Sowmya, Kadandale; Iurii, Kobyshcha; Jadranka, Mimica; Otilia, Scutelniciuc; Emilis, Subata ( 2014 )
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Economic crisis, health systems and health in Europe: impact and implications for policy
Thomson, Sarah; Figueras, Josep; Evetovits, Tamás; Jowett, Matthew; Mladovsky, Philipa; Maresso, Anna; Cylus, Jonathan; Karanikolos, Marina; Kluge, Hans ( 2014 )
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Smart governance for health and well-being: the evidence
Kickbusch, Ilona; Gleicher, David ( 2014 )
Abstract

Governance for health describes the attempts of governments and other actors to steer communities, whole countries or even groups of countries in the pursuit of health as integral to well-being. This study tracks recent governance innovations to address the priority determinants of health and categorizes them into five strategic approaches to smart governance for health. It relates the emergence of joint action by the health and non-health sectors, public and private actors and citizens, all of whom have an increasing role to play in achieving seminal changes in 21st century societies. The chapters presented here were initially commissioned as papers to provide the evidence base for the new European policy framework for health and well-being, Health 2020. Calling for a health-in-all-policies, whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach, Health 2020 uses governance as a lens through which to view all technical areas of health.

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The Case For Investing In Public Health. A public health summary report for EPHO 8.
( 2014 )
Abstract

The economic crisis has led to increased demand and reduced resources for health sectors. The trend for increasing healthcare costs to individuals, the health sector and wider society is significant. Public health can be part of the solution to this challenge. The evidence shows that prevention can be cost-effective, provide value for money and give returns on investment in both the short and longer terms. This public health summary outlines quick returns on investment for health and other sectors for interventions that promote physical activity and healthy employment; address housing and mental health; and reduce road traffic injuries and violence. Vaccinations and screening programmes are largely cost-effective. Population-level approaches are estimated to cost on average five times less than individual interventions. This report gives examples of interventions with early returns on investment and approaches with longer-term gains. Investing in cost-effective interventions to reduce costs to the health sector and other sectors can help create sustainable health systems and economies for the future.

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Preventing and addressing intimate partner violence against migrant and ethnic minority women: the role of the health sector
Vives-Cases, Carmen; La Parra, Daniel; Goicolea, Isabel; Felt, Emily; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby; Gil-González, Diana ( 2014 )
Abstract

Violence against women is an extreme manifestation of gender inequality in society and a serious violation of fundamental human rights. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of such violence and takes place within couples. IPV can lead to death, physical injury, functional impairment, mental health problems, negative health behaviour, chronic conditions and reproductive health problems. Institutional discrimination, lack of access to or knowledge of services, and cultural differences can prevent women who are not only experiencing IPV but also migrants or members of ethnic minorities from seeking help. This policy brief aims to provide input into the role of the health sector in preventing and addressing IPV among migrant women and those of ethnic minorities. It describes the scope of the problem, presenting key evidence, and makes recommendations for health policy and health systems, health facilities and health service providers.

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What do we know about the strengths and weakness of different policy mechanisms to influence health behaviour in the population?
McDaid, David; Oliver, Adam; Merkur, Sherry ( 2014 )
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Governance for health equity
Brown, Chris; Harrison, Dominic; Burns, Harry; Ziglio, Erio ( 2013 )
Abstract

This report is one of 13 task group reports which underpin the work of the European review of the social determinants of health and the health divide. The study was commissioned by the WHO Regional Office for Europe to inform the development of Health 2020. With its distilled lessons, this publication is of vital importance for the WHO European Region’s 53 Member States and their efforts to implement the equity goals of Health 2020. It provides a situation analysis of why policies and interventions to address social determinants of health and health inequities succeed or fail. It also discusses important features of governance and delivery systems that increase likely success in reducing inequities. A systems checklist for governing for health equity as a whole-of-government approach is put forward. This is intended for further discussion and as a framework to support strengthening how countries govern for health equity in practice, through action on social determinants.

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Health 2020, A European policy framework and strategy for the 21st century
( 2013 )
Abstract

The 53 countries of the European Region approved a new value- and evidence-based health policy framework for the Region, Health 2020, at the session of the WHO Regional Committee for Europe in September 2012. Health 2020 focuses on improving health for all and reducing health inequalities, through improved leadership and governance for health. It focuses on today’s major health problems. It identifies four priority areas for policy action and is innovative in terms of responses across all levels and sectors of government and society, emphasizing developing assets and resilience within communities, empowerment and creating supportive environments. It details the strengthened roles of public health services and the health system. Health 2020 was approved in two forms: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being for politicians and those developing policy and the longer Health 2020 policy framework and strategy, which provides more operational detail. Implementing Health 2020 in countries is now the fundamental top-priority challenge for the Region.

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Tackling health inequities: from concepts to practice, The experience of Västra Götaland
( 2014 )
Abstract

Despite remarkable health gains, inequities persist between and within countries in the WHO European Region and Sweden is no exception. Actions to effectively tackle health inequities need to be carried out at all levels of government. Regions have a key role to play in tackling health inequities in that they are close to their populations and have the power and skills to develop efficient public health policies that may contribute in reducing health disparities by changing the distribution of social determinants of health. The report is about the process that the Region of Västra Götaland followed to mainstream the health equity dimension in its regional health plan and which resulted in the Action Plan for Health Equity in Region Västra Götaland. This publication is an account of the factors that made it possible, but it also presents a fair account of the obstacles encountered and the measures to overcome them. The report is a good illustration of how whole-of-government and whole-ofsociety approaches proposed by Health 2020 have been implemented in a real setting.

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Improving the allocation of health care resources in Poland
Nagy, Balázs ( 2015 )
Abstract

Poland has been going through a series of health care reforms with the intention of further improving its health care system. While some changes have been successfully initiated, access to health care remains inequitable and - to some extent - limited; also further improvement is needed in the efficient operation and coordination of the health care system. With better allocation and/or utilization of health care resources it should be possible to reach an approximation to European levels of health status. The aim of the report is to explore ways in which the macro-level resource allocation can be improved to best serve the purposes of the Polish health care system, and to propose methods to pursue this development process. To accomplish this, the Polish context and the aims of strategic resource allocation were explored, international literature on macro level resource allocation was reviewed and tools, methods, practices and procedures for further improvement are proposed.