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Health Systems in Transition; Ukraine; Health system review
Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica ( 2015 )
This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population’s health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3% in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system
Germany. Health system review.
Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam ( 2014 )
This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance. A total of 70 million people or 85% of the population are covered by statutory health insurance in one of 132 sickness funds in early 2014. Another 11% are covered by substitutive private health insurance. Characteristics of the system are free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels. A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between ambulatory physicians and hospitals. Germany invests a substantial amount of its resources on health care: 11.4% of gross domestic product in 2012, which is one of the highest levels in the European Union. In international terms, the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as relatively low cost-sharing. However, the German health care system still needs improvement in some areas, such as the quality of care. In addition, the division into statutory and private health insurance remains one of the largest challenges for the German health care system, as it leads to inequalities.
Croatia Health system review
Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavic, Nika; Loncarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlaric, Katarina ( 2014 )
Health Systems in Transition; Uzbekistan; Health system review
Ahmedov, Mohir; Azimov, Ravshan; Mutalova, Zulkhumor; Huseynov, Shahin; Tsoyi, Elena; Rechel, Bernd ( 2014 )
EVALUATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND PROVISION OF PRIMARY CARE IN TAJIKISTAN
( 2014 )
The WHO Primary Care Evaluation Tool (PCET) aims to provide a structured approach to evaluation of service delivery, providing policy-makers and health care managers with evidence for improving reforms.It focuses on health systems functions, such as governance, financing and resource-generation,and the characteristics of a good primary care service delivery system, which include accessibility,comprehensiveness, coordination and continuity. The methodology assesses whether primary health care service delivery is supported by an adequate legal and normative framework, financing mechanisms, human resource strategies, supply of appropriate facilities, equipment and drugs, and effective leadership. This report provides an overview of findings from the use of PCET in Tajikistan, offering a structured overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the country’s organization and provision of primary health care services – including the voices of the professionals and patients concerned – to interested policy-makers and stakeholders.
Italy: Health system review
Ferré, Francesca; de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Valerio, Luca; Longhi, Silvia; Lazzari, Agnese; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter; Maresso, Anna ( 2014 )
Italy is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. Italy’s health-care system is a regionally based national health service that provides universal coverage largely free of charge at the point of delivery. The main source of financing is national and regional taxes, supplemented by co-payments for pharmaceuticals and outpatient care. In 2012, total health expenditure accounted for 9.2% of GDP (slightly below the EU average of 9.6%). Public sources made up 78.2% of total health-care spending. While the central government provides a stewardship role, setting the fundamental principles and goals of the health system and determining the core benefit package of health services available to all citizens, the regions are responsible for organizing and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary health-care services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Faced with the current economic constraints of having to contain or even reduce health expenditure, the largest challenge facing the health system is to achieve budgetary goals without reducing the provision of health services to patients. This is related to the other key challenge of ensuring equity across regions, where gaps in service provision and health system performance persist. Other issues include ensuring the quality of professionals managing facilities, promoting group practice and other integrated care organizational models in primary care, and ensuring that the concentration of organizational control by regions of health-care providers does not stifle innovation.