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Extensive review of tuberculosis prevention, control and care in Kazakhstan
( 2014 )
Abstract

The notification rate of TB cases in Kazakhstan is among the highest in the WHO European Region. WHO was requested to organize a review of the Kazakh Tuberculosis Programme, which took place from 10 to 16 May 2012. The reviewers made a number of recommendations to improve the programme. The main focus should be on: expansion of the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB, introduction and roll-out of molecular diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB, expansion of ambulatory treatment of patients, and home-based care and day-care treatment including all eligible patients, particularly sputum-smearnegative patients (as well as sputum-smear-negative MDR-TB patients). Hospitalization practices need to be rationalized in order: (i) to prevent the spread of drug resistance, and (ii) to use the available resources more efficiently by reallocating the funds saved by reducing the number of hospitals to expand ambulatory treatment, social support for patients and the number of health-care providers. Examples of the involvement of civil society organizations and provision of an integrated continuum of care (transfer of released patients from prison to civilian sector) need to be expanded across the country.

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HIV/AIDS IN TAJIKISTAN
Laukamm‐Josten, Ulrich; Lali, Khotenashvili; Baktygul, Akkazieva; Svetlana, Antonyak; Svetlana, Cebotari; Lella, Cosmaro; Sayohat, Hasanova; Sowmya, Kadandale; Iurii, Kobyshcha; Jadranka, Mimica; Otilia, Scutelniciuc; Emilis, Subata ( 2014 )
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Economic crisis, health systems and health in Europe: impact and implications for policy
Thomson, Sarah; Figueras, Josep; Evetovits, Tamás; Jowett, Matthew; Mladovsky, Philipa; Maresso, Anna; Cylus, Jonathan; Karanikolos, Marina; Kluge, Hans ( 2014 )
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The Case For Investing In Public Health. A public health summary report for EPHO 8.
( 2014 )
Abstract

The economic crisis has led to increased demand and reduced resources for health sectors. The trend for increasing healthcare costs to individuals, the health sector and wider society is significant. Public health can be part of the solution to this challenge. The evidence shows that prevention can be cost-effective, provide value for money and give returns on investment in both the short and longer terms. This public health summary outlines quick returns on investment for health and other sectors for interventions that promote physical activity and healthy employment; address housing and mental health; and reduce road traffic injuries and violence. Vaccinations and screening programmes are largely cost-effective. Population-level approaches are estimated to cost on average five times less than individual interventions. This report gives examples of interventions with early returns on investment and approaches with longer-term gains. Investing in cost-effective interventions to reduce costs to the health sector and other sectors can help create sustainable health systems and economies for the future.

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Health 2020: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being
( 2013 )
Abstract

The 53 countries of the European Region approved a new value- and evidence-based health policy framework for the Region, Health 2020, at the session of the WHO Regional Committee for Europe in September 2012. Health 2020 focuses on improving health for all and reducing health inequalities, through improved leadership and governance for health. It focuses on today’s major health problems. It identifies four priority areas for policy action and is innovative in terms of responses across all levels and sectors of government and society, emphasizing developing assets and resilience within communities, empowerment and creating supportive environments. It details the strengthened roles of public health services and the health system. Health 2020 was approved in two forms: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being for politicians and those developing policy and the longer Health 2020 policy framework and strategy, which provides more operational detail. Implementing Health 2020 in countries is now the fundamental top-priority challenge for the Region.

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Health 2020, A European policy framework and strategy for the 21st century
( 2013 )
Abstract

The 53 countries of the European Region approved a new value- and evidence-based health policy framework for the Region, Health 2020, at the session of the WHO Regional Committee for Europe in September 2012. Health 2020 focuses on improving health for all and reducing health inequalities, through improved leadership and governance for health. It focuses on today’s major health problems. It identifies four priority areas for policy action and is innovative in terms of responses across all levels and sectors of government and society, emphasizing developing assets and resilience within communities, empowerment and creating supportive environments. It details the strengthened roles of public health services and the health system. Health 2020 was approved in two forms: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being for politicians and those developing policy and the longer Health 2020 policy framework and strategy, which provides more operational detail. Implementing Health 2020 in countries is now the fundamental top-priority challenge for the Region.

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Health Systems in Transition; Uzbekistan; Health system review
Ahmedov, Mohir; Azimov, Ravshan; Mutalova, Zulkhumor; Huseynov, Shahin; Tsoyi, Elena; Rechel, Bernd ( 2014 )
Health systems in transition : Armenia : health system review / Tatul Hakobyan ... [et al.]
Hakobyan, Tatul; Nazaretyan, Mihran; Makarova, Tatyana; Aristakesyan, Movses; Margaryants, Hovhannes; Nolte, Ellen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies ( 2006 )
Guidance on water supply and sanitation in extreme weather events
Aertgeerts, R; Sinisi, L; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe ( 2011 )
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Transforming health services delivery towards people-centred health systems
( 2014 )
Abstract

The briefing note at hand has been prepared to annotate with further conceptual clarity the structure and organization of the Framework for Action, with the objective of specifying the following: (1) its strategic vision according to the determinants of people-centred health services; (2) how needed transformations are reasoned beginning from a root cause analysis of the function itself; and (3) the translation of the defined vision and reasoned determinants into the core components of the Framework. The note should be read merely as a positioning of themes, attempting here only to narrate the direction of the Framework as an umbrella-like, all encompassing space for the concept of health services delivery to then be further explored and specified in forthcoming work.