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The Introduction of a mental health component into primary health care
World Health Organization ( 1990 )
Abstract

Outlines a new approach to both the promotion of mental health and the diagnosis and management of psychological disorders. Citing abundant evidence linking psychosocial factors to the causes and symptoms of disease, the book argues for an approach to treatment and prevention that recognizes mental health care as a part of general health care and treats patients with psychosocial problems within the same facilities as those suffering from physical complaints. The book opens with an explanation of reasons why most systems of health care have neglected the emotional needs of patients and ignored the demonstrated impact of psychosocial factors on health and disease. The second chapter defines the scope of mental health care, noting the need to develop skills that can enhance the quality of life as well as aid in the control of disease. Readers are also given a list of the types of mental disorders that are best managed by general health workers. These include such severe disorders as senile dementia and schizophrenia, as well as the more common psychological and emotional disturbances, drug and alcohol abuse, and psychological complications of physical disease or injury. The second and most extensive part of the book outlines the practical steps needed to decentralize mental health care and place the responsibility for prevention within the general health services. Of particular practical value is a chapter, concerned with the infrastructure for decentralization, which defines the specific mental health tasks that can be performed by clinic-based health workers, by specialized medical personnel, and by psychiatrists working in hospitals and institutions. The remaining chapters cover principles for training disease-related and psychosocial skills, the priority conditions that should be handled at the primary level whenever possible, the essential drugs required for treatment at the primary level, methods of data collection to support programme development, and the financial savings that can be expected when mental health services are decentralized

Introduction of article-processing charges for Population Health Metrics
Murray, Christopher JL; Mathers, Colin D ( 2003-11-01 )
Abstract

Population Health Metrics is an open-access online electronic journal published by BioMed Central - it is universally and freely available online to everyone, its authors retain copyright, and it is archived in at least one internationally recognised free repository. To fund this, from November 1 2003, authors of articles accepted for publication will be asked to pay an article-processing charge of US$500. This editorial outlines the reasons for the introduction of article-processing charges and the way in which this policy will work.Waiver requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis, by the Editor-in-Chief. Article-processing charges will not apply to authors whose institutions are 'members' of BioMed Central. Current members include NHS England, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, Harvard, Princeton and Yale universities, and all UK universities. No charge is made for articles that are rejected after peer review. Many funding agencies have also realized the importance of open access publishing and have specified that their grants may be used directly to pay APCs.

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Introduction of Haemophilus Influenzae type b vaccine into immunization programmes : management guidelines, including information for health workers and parents
World Health Organization. Dept. of Vaccines and Biologicals ( 2000 )
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Introduction of hepatitis B vaccine into childhood immunization services : management guidelines, including information for health workers and parents
World Health Organization. Dept. of Vaccines and Biologicals ( 2001 )
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Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine and switch from trivalent to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine worldwide, 2013-2016 = Introduction du vaccin antipoliomyélitique inactivé et passage du vaccin antipoliomyélitique oral trivalent au vaccin antipoliomyélitique oral bivalent dans le monde, 2013-2016
World Health Organization ( 2015 )
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Introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine into oral poliovirus vaccine-using countries : WHO position paper = Adoption du vaccin antipoliomyélitique inactivé par les pays utilisant le vaccin antipoliomyélitique oral : Note d'information de l'OMS
World Health Organization ( 2003 )
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Introduction of new contraceptives into family planning programmes : guidelines for social science research / John G. Cleland, Ellen E. Hardy, Erica Taucher
Cleland, John G; Hardy, Ellen E; Taucher, Erica; WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction ( 1990 )
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Introduction of new vaccines : Report of a regional consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, 11-13 December 2012
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2013 )
Abstract

Description: The Regional Consultation on Introduction of New Vaccines in the South-East Asia Region was held on 11-13 December 2012 in Bangkok, Thailand. The primary objective of the Consultation was to agree on a regional framework in the South-East Asia Region that will enable Member countries to make rational decisions on new vaccine introduction. The consultation brought together the key technical experts and EPI managers from Member States of the WHO South-East Asia Region for this purpose and reviewed the existing criteria and agreed for a draft decision-making algorithm for countries to use at the national level in introducing new and underutilized vaccines in the future. This publication contains the report of the above consultation. The report includes a review on the progress of the implementation of "2012-Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization", regional decision-making framework for new and under-utilized vaccines (NUVI), potential contribution from NUVI in achieving millennium development goals (MDGs), the global and regional new vaccine introduction experience, Japanese encephalitis and acute encephalitic syndrome surveillance, issues and challenges of health system strengthening for NUVI, public health benefits of NUVI in Thailand, issues and challenges of sustaining immunization financing, an update on vaccine supply, polio, measles, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus and invasive bacterial disease surveillance, regulatory challenges for NUVI and roles of national committees of immunization practices and national expanded programme on immunization in decision- making for NUVI. This report makes recommendations for Member States of the WHO South-East Asia Region on their efforts to achieve the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) goals.

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Introduction of pharmacovigilance in a new university hospital in Morocco: how and why
Khabbal, Y.; Alami, L.; Nejjari, C. ( 2012 )
Abstract

In an effort to improve patient safety, Hassan II hospital in Fez introduced a pharmacovigilance system for notification of adverse drug reactions as a priority objective. The implementation of pharmacovigilance activities actually began in June 2007 but it was in 2009 after the inauguration of the new complex that the system became properly operational. This report outlines the activities carried out to develop and implement this system, including informing and training the health professionals, and the results obtained after its introduction. From 2007 to 2009, fewer than 100 cases of adverse drug reactions were reported. Up to June 2011, however, 520 reports of adverse drug reactions were recorded. The classes of drugs most implicated in adverse events were: cancer drugs [26%], anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics [each 15%], analgesics [12%], iodinated contrast agents [6%], and anticoagulants and corticosteroids [5%]. The main adverse events were dermatological and 27% of reports came from the internal medicine department, followed by hepatogastroenterology [25%]. Of the 520 cases reported, 46% were severe

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Introduction of pneumococcal vaccine PCV10, two dose presentation: a handbook for district and health facility staff
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
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Introduction of pneumococcal vaccine PCV13 : a handbook for district and health facility staff
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
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Introduction of radiation medicine into the undergraduate medical curriculum : fifth report of the Expert Committee on Professional and Technical Education of Medical and Auxiliary Personnel [meeting held in Geneva from 25 to 30 November 1957]
WHO Expert Committee on Professional and Technical Education of Medical and Auxiliary Personnel; World Health Organization ( 1958 )
Introduction of rapid syphilis testing in antenatal care: A systematic review of the impact on HIV and syphilis testing uptake and coverage
Steiner, Riley J; Newman, Lori M; Kamb, Mary L; Adler, Michelle R; Swartzendruber, Andrea ( 2015-04-29 )
Abstract

Global guidelines recommend universal syphilis and HIV screening for pregnant women. Rapid syphilis testing (RST) may contribute toward achievement of universal screening.To examine the impact of RST on syphilis and HIV screening among pregnant women.We searched MEDLINE for English- and non-English language articles published through November, 2014.We included studies that used a comparative design and reported on syphilis and HIV test uptake among pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) following introduction of RST.Data were extracted from six eligible articles presenting findings from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.All studies reported substantial increases in antenatal syphilis testing following introduction of RST; the latter did not appear to adversely impact antenatal HIV screening levels at sites already offering rapid HIV testing and may increase HIV screening among pregnant women in some settings. Qualitative data revealed that women were highly satisfied with RST. Nevertheless, ensuring adequate training for healthcare workers and supplies of commodities were cited as key implementation barriers.RST may increase antenatal syphilis and HIV screening and contribute to the improvement of antenatal care in LMICs.

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Introduction of rotavirus vaccines : information for policy makers, programme managers, and health workers: WHO, Geneva, July 31, 2013
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
Introduction of rubella-containing-vaccine to Madagascar: implications for roll-out and local elimination
Winter, Amy; Wesolowski, Amy; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Andrianjafimasy, Miora; Mensah, Keitly; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Tatem, Andrew J; Buckee, Caroline O; Brook, Cara E ( 2016-04-01 )
Abstract

Few countries in Africa currently include rubella-containing vaccination (RCV) in their immunization schedule. The Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI) recently opened a funding window that has motivated more widespread roll-out of RCV. As countries plan RCV introductions, an understanding of the existing burden, spatial patterns of vaccine coverage, and the impact of patterns of local extinction and reintroduction for rubella will be critical to developing effective programmes. As one of the first countries proposing RCV introduction in part with GAVI funding, Madagascar provides a powerful and timely case study. We analyse serological data from measles surveillance systems to characterize the epidemiology of rubella in Madagascar. Combining these results with data on measles vaccination delivery, we develop an age-structured model to simulate rubella vaccination scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of rubella and the burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) across Madagascar. We additionally evaluate the drivers of spatial heterogeneity in age of infection to identify focal locations where vaccine surveillance should be strengthened and where challenges to successful vaccination introduction are expected. Our analyses indicate that characteristics of rubella in Madagascar are in line with global observations, with an average age of infection near 7 years, and an impact of frequent local extinction with reintroductions causing localized epidemics. Modelling results indicate that introduction of RCV into the routine programme alone may initially decrease rubella incidence but then result in cumulative increases in the burden of CRS in some regions (and transient increases in this burden in many regions). Deployment of RCV with regular supplementary campaigns will mitigate these outcomes. Results suggest that introduction of RCV offers a potential for elimination of rubella in Madagascar, but also emphasize both that targeted vaccination is likely to be a lynchpin of this success, and the public health vigilance that this introduction will require.

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Introduction of second-generation HIV surveillance guidelines in some newly independant states of eastern Europe : report on a WHO meeting, St Petersburg, Russian Federation 5-7 June 2001
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2001 )
Abstract

The explosive character of the HIV epidemic in eastern Europe demands the introduction of a more sensitive and more flexible system of surveillance. This should be capable of monitoring the ways in which the virus is transmitted and the factors that facilitate it, and offer the possibility of predicting new ways of transmission, new vulnerable population groups, and new areas of HIV spread. WHO, in cooperation with UNAIDS, has developed recommendations for such a type of second-generation HIV surveillance. As a result of the adoption of these recommendations, three new elements related to HIV surveillance will be introduced: sentinel surveillance for HIV prevalence, behavioural surveillance, and surveillance for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The main aim of the new system is more efficient data collection and analysis. The ultimate goal is more precise monitoring of the epidemic and tailoring actions of its prevention and control. The participants exchanged information on practical aspects of the current surveillance system in countries of eastern Europe, discussed and agreed on the technical issues of introducing second-generation surveillance, and developed recommendations for the development of national country-specific protocols for introducing and coordinating surveillance

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Introduction of the annual report Dr Ala Alwan Regional Director WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to the Sixtieth Session of the WHO Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean, Muscat, Oman, 27–30 October 2013
World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean ( 2013 )
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Introduction of the annual report Dr Ala Alwan Regional Director WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to the Sixtieth Session of the WHO Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean, Muscat, Oman, 27–30 October 2013
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
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Introduction of the annual report Dr Ala Alwan Regional Director WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to the sixty-first session of the who regional committee for the Eastern Mediterranean,Tunis,Tunisia,19-22 October 2014
World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean ( 2014-10-19 )
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Introduction of the Annual Report Dr Ala Alwan WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean to the Fifty-ninth Session of the Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, 1–4 October 2012
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
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